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指向创造力培育的高中数学学习环境建构的案例研究

【作者】 赵凌云

【导师】 徐斌艳;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2020, 博士

【摘要】 世界正处在大发展、大变革、大调整时期,经济全球化深入发展,科技进步日新月异,人才竞争日趋激烈,社会对创新性人才的需求也日趋迫切。我国《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要2010-2020年》(以下简称《发展规划纲要》)指出,“我国正处在改革发展的关键阶段…经济发展方式加快转变,都凸显了提高国民素质,培养创新人才的重要性和迫切性”。学校教育需要从培养知识性人才向培养创新性人才转变。我国教育部在20世纪初颁布了《全日制普通高级中学课程计划(试验修订稿)》(以下简称“《课程计划》”),强调了提高学生的创新精神和实践能力。本研究通过文献梳理出培养学生创新素养最核心的是培养学生的创造力,而创造力的培养是在一定的环境中才能孕育、激发和生产的。因此为学生创设有利于创造力培育的学习环境的重要性就不言而喻了。本研究以建构指向创造力培育的学习环境为目的,在梳理创造力相关文献的基础上析出其构成的核心要素、架构其实践框架,并以案例的形式呈现其具体的实践操作及效果分析。整个研究主要围绕以下三个问题来展开:问题一:指向学生创造力培育的学习环境包括哪些核心要素?问题二:指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境实践层面如何操作?问题三:指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境的实践效果如何?本文共八章,第一章为绪论,主要对研究背景、研究缘起、研究问题、研究意义以及技术路线进行阐述。第二章为文献综述与分析,旨在理清创造、创造力、创新之间的关联,最终聚焦在“环境”支持的视角,来实现创造力的培育路径。第三章为理论基础,包括对学习理论的梳理、情境认知理论和活动理论以及他们与本研究的关系。第四章为研究设计,分别就研究方法、研究对象、数据收集、研究工具的建立以及研究的信度与伦理进行了详细的呈现与解释。第五章为指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境的理论构建,围绕着核心要素及实践框架进行详细的推理与解释,这一章为实践提供了理论上的支持与实践模型。第六章是实践案例的呈现与分析,在第五章的框架的基础上进行实践探索的呈现。第七章基于S中的实践分析其实践效果,主要从学生创造力测量表现以及访谈数据两部分展开。第八章是研究结论与反思,先围绕三个研究问题进行总结与回顾,再根据研究中出现的问题进行反思,最后理性地分析本研究的不足及未来进一步探究的方向。围绕三个研究问题,研究的主要结论如下:(1)通过文献梳理,指向创造力培育的学习环境的核心要素是:真实的情境;富有挑战性的任务;持续的探究过程;鼓励学生提出想法;开放的支持性资源。(2)第五章建构了指向创造力培育的数学学习环境的理论框架并详细阐述了每个部分的具体内涵及可参考的操作指南,呈现了其应然的样态。第六章以案例分析的形式呈现其实然状态,主要从指向创造力培育的数学学习环境的设计以及具体实践操作分别进行实践解读。(3)通过具体的实证数据佐证指向创造力培育的数学学习环境的有效性,具体如下:首先,在学生创造力测量结果的表现上,参加项目的学生在创造性情感倾向和创造性思维方面均优于未参加项目的学生。其中参加项目的学生创造性情感倾向测量在好奇心、想象力、挑战性三个维度上以及总分都有一定的提升,相反,没有参加的学生在冒险性、想象力、挑战性三个维度以及总分都有所下降。学生在创造性思维测试的表现显示,通过对学生横向和纵向的比较,虽然所有的学生在流畅性、灵活性以及新颖性各个指标上都有所下降,但是参加项目的学生在各个指标上的表现均优于未参加项目的学生。这说明指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境对于促进学生的创造力表现具有积极的作用。同时,通过访谈数据可知参加项目的学生大部分获得了积极体验。最终学生提交的成果也基本达到了预期的效果。其次,数学指导教师在指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境的实践中有痛感也有进步。从学生、数学指导教师、管理者三个层面,在应然状态和实然表现上表现出最大张力的是数学指导教师。数学指导教师对于指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境建构理念的内化与践行是其在实践层面最大的困境。S中以教师为主体建立的实践共同体、实践探索以及积极的效果反馈对教师产生较大的影响。最终在实践活动完成后,数学指导教师的态度有了非常明显的改善。再者,学校管理层非常认可指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境建设的理念与操作,在推进方面表现得也非常积极。S中的相关管理者结合时代背景深入地剖析自身学校的情况、认识到创造力培养的重要性、结合校本情况潜心进行课程改革的深化。这有效地保障了指向学生创造力培育的高中数学学习环境建设的有效开展。在课程改革背景下,本研究建构的指向创造力培育的学习环境在实践层面,具有较高的可操作性也取得不错的实践效果。学生经历背景学习、问题聚焦、选题论证、制定计划、科学探究、数据收集与分析、研究总结与反思、结题汇报八大环节,使学生有机会进行创造性的问题解决。他们在整个学习过程中体验了一次次的合作、探究、交流、表达、反思,最终形成了个性化的解决方案,并公开展现他们的成果与作品。这样的经历对于高中阶段的学生来说是十分宝贵的,这些体验或者收获不会随着课题的结束而消失。

【Abstract】 We live at a time when the world is undergoing great development,major changes and adjustments.As you know,with the ever-developing economic globalization and rapid technological change,the competition for talents is becoming increasingly fierce.The demand for creative talents is also becoming more urgent.China’s Outline of National Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development Program(2010-2020)states that China is at a critical stage of reform and development...the culture of creative talents is urgent and important.Schooling has to shift from cultivating knowledge talents to creative talents.At the beginning of the 20th century,our country promulgated the Full-time General Senior Middle School Curriculum Plan(Test Revised Draft)for the high school curriculum schedule.It highlights to cultivate students’creativity and practical ability.In this study,the core of cultivating students’creativity through literature research,and the cultivation of creativity can be bred,stimulated and produced in a certain environment.Therefore,it is known to all that the importance of establishing learning environments which are conducive to foster students’creativity.The purpose of this study is to construct the learning environments to nurture students’creativity,analyze the core components of creativity on the basis of sorting out the literature research on creativity,thereby build a practical framework,and present its operation and practical models in the form of case school.It mainly focuses on the following three questions:Q1:What are the core elements of learning environments to nurture students’creativity?Q2:In practice,how the mathematical learning environments designed to nurture students’creativity worked?Q3:What is the practical effect of cultivate students’creativity supported by the mathematical learning environments?There are eight chapters in this research.The first chapter is the introduction.It mainly describes the research background,research origins,research problems,research significance and technical route.The second chapter is a literature review and analysis,aiming to clarify the relationship between innovation literacy,creativity,and finally focus on the perspective of environment support to achieve the cultivation path of creativity.The third chapter is the theoretical basis,including the combing of learning theory,the development of situated cognitive theory,communities of practice,activity theory and how they work in this research.Chapter 4 is the research design,which presents and explains the research methods,research objects,data collection,research tools,research reliability and ethics in detail.The fifth chapter is the theoretical construction of the learning environments toward to development students’creativity,that is,to analyze the core elements of the learning environments to be elaborated by this research from a macro perspective,and to carry out detailed reasoning and explanation around the core elements and the practical framework.This chapter provides theory for practice support and practice model.Chapter 6 is a practical case analysis,which is mainly based on the framework of Chapter 5 to present the practice exploration.Chapter 7 mainly analyzes the effect based on the practice in S school,and it based on creativity measurements and interview data.The eighth chapter is conclusion and reflection,summarizes the research findings,and firstly review the three questions,then reflection the problem which arised in the research,finally analyzes the deficiencies of this research and the directions for further exploration in the future.Focusing on three research questions,the main conclusions of this study are as follows:Ⅰ.Through the literature review,the core elements of the learning environments in this study that are aimed at nutrition of students’creativity are:a)real situations,b)challenging tasks,c)continuous inquiry,d)encourage students to propose ideas,e)open supporting resources.Ⅱ.The construction of the theoretical framework in Chapter 5 elaborated on the specific connotation of each part and the reference operation guide.Chapter 6 presents the actual situation in the form of case school,mainly elaborating from the construction of learning environment to nutrition of students’creativity and the specific operation of practical operation.Ⅲ.Prove the effectiveness of the learning environments toward to development students’creativity through empirical data in various dimensions,as follows:Firstly,in terms of student creativity measurement results,the students who participated in the project were better than those who did not.Among them,students participating in the project have a slight improvement in the three dimensions of creative curiosity,imagination,and challenge,as well as the total score.On the contrary,the students who didn’t participate in the project has dropped slightly in the dimensions of risk,imagination,and challenge,as well as the total score.At the level of creative thinking test,through horizontal and vertical comparison,although all students have declined in fluency,flexibility and novelty indicators,students participating in the project scored better on all indicators.This shows that the mathematical learning environments toward to development high school students’creativity have a positive effect on the creativity of students.Secondly,most students get a positive experience.In the end,almost all students submitted their results and achieved the anticipated goal.Thirdly,mathematical teachers have pain and progress in the construction of the mathematical learning environments toward to development high school students’creativity.It is our mathematics teachers who show the greatest tension at the actual level and the supposed state.The development of teaching staff is also the biggest dilemma.The practice community established by teachers as the main body in S school has a positive influence in this respect.Finally,after completing the practice activities,the attitude of teachers has also been significantly improved.Finally,the school management recognized the concept of the mathematical learning environments toward to development high school students’creativity and was very active in promoting it.This effectively guarantees the effective development of the mathematical learning environments toward to development high school students’creativity.The managers of S school deeply analyze the situation with their own schools based on the background of the times,clarify the short board of the school-based curriculum,concentrate on deepening the curriculum reform.What they do actually guaranteed the practice of the mathematical learning environments toward to development high school students’creativity.In the context of curriculum reform,the proposed learning environments for creativity training is built on the practical level,with high operability and good practical results.Students have eight parts in the selection,background learning,focus on the question,argument their question,draw up a plan,inquiry process collect and analysis the dates,summary and reflection,and reporting their study.The students have experienced cooperation,inquiry,communication,expression,reflection throughout the process.Finally they formed their personalized solutions,and present their work in public.Such experiences are extremely valuable to high school students.These experiences or gains will not disappear with the end of the subject.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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