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中学生地球科学素养测评研究

【作者】 周维国

【导师】 段玉山;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2020, 博士

【摘要】 随着我国经济社会的高速发展,与地球科学相关的资源、环境、灾害等问题日益突出。同时,地球科学内容在基础教育质量监测、国际大规模科学学业评估等测评中受到重视。中学生作为未来社会的主力军,他们的地球科学素养水平应该受到关注。基于此,本研究以中学生为研究对象,围绕“地球科学素养及其测评”展开了系统研究工作,主要回答以下三个研究问题:中学生地球科学素养测评的理论框架如何构建?中学生地球科学素养测评工具如何开发?中学生的地球科学素养水平如何?为解决上述研究问题,本研究基于以证据为中心的设计理论、建构理论、项目反应理论、经典测量理论,综合运用文献分析、量化研究、质性研究等多种方法,主要的研究工作和成果如下。第一,构建中学生地球科学素养测评框架。基于文献分析法,结合地球科学教育的实际情况,本研究将中学生的地球科学素养测评的一级维度划分为地球科学知识的理解和应用、地球科学探究的证据和实践、对地球科学的情感和态度,并将地球科学知识的理解和应用、地球科学探究的证据和实践划分为了四个表现水平,确定了学生对地球科学的情感和态度测评指标。第二,开发高质量的中学生地球科学素养测评工具。本研究对地球科学知识的理解和应用、地球科学探究的证据和实践两个维度进行纸笔测评,对地球科学的情感和态度进行态度量表调查。纸笔测评工具和态度量表工具在初步编制后,均经过多次试测和修改,形成了最终的地球科学素养测评工具。利用测评工具进行正式测试后,测评工具的各项参数符合项目反应理论和经典测量理论的参数要求,得到了质量可靠的中学生地球科学素养测评工具。第三,发现并总结提炼中学生地球科学素养的整体特征。整体来看,大部分初二年级被试在地球科学知识的理解和应用、地球科学探究的证据和实践的水平能够达到初中毕业的要求;大部分高二年级被试在地球科学知识的理解和应用、地球科学探究的证据和实践的水平高于初中毕业的要求,但能达到高中毕业要求的被试较少;被试对地球科学的情感和态度有较高水平,但是在质疑精神维度水平较低,有待提升。最后,在以上研究的基础上,本研究基于施测学校探究影响中学生地球科学素养水平的原因,并提出相关建议。本研究从学生成绩和师生访谈的角度对中学生地球科学素养现状进行了原因分析与探讨。针对中学生地球科学素养的现状,笔者提出理顺基础教育阶段的地球科学课程设置、注重提升教师个人地球科学素养、改革现有的地球科学教学方式、创新地球科学的评价方式等四点建议,以提升中学生的地球科学素养水平。

【Abstract】 With the rapid development of Chinese economy and society,the problems related to earth science such as resources,environment and disasters have become increasingly prominent.At the same time,the contents of earth science were valued in the basic education quality monitoring and international large-scale scientific academic assessment.As the main force of the future society,middle school students are supposed to be paid more attention to their earth science literacy.Based on the background,this study takes middle school students as the research object,and carries out systematic research on “Earth science Literacy and Its Assessment”.The research mainly answers the following three questions: how to construct the theoretical framework of earth science literacy assessment for middle school students? How to develop earth science literacy assessment tools for middle school students? What is the earth science literacy level of middle school students? In order to answer these questions,the research is based on evidence-centered design theory,construction theory,item response theory and classical test theory,with a variety of methods including literature analysis,quantitative research and qualitative research.The main research work and results are as follows.First,the research constructs the framework of earth science literacy assessment for middle school students.Based on the method of literature analysis and combined with the actual situation of earth science education,this study divides students’ earth science literacy into three dimensions which are understanding and application of earth science knowledge,evidence and practice of earth science inquiry,emotion and attitude towards earth science.In addition,the study divides the former two dimensions into four performance levels and determines the assessment indicators of students’ emotion and attitude towards earth science.Second,the research develops high-quality earth science literacy assessment tool for middle school students.In this study,it conducted a paper-and-pencil assessment for the understanding and application of earth science knowledge,the evidence and practice of earth science inquiry.The dimension of emotion and attitude towards earth science was investigated by attitude scale.With initial preparation,the paper-andpencil assessment tool and the attitude scale tool have been tested and revised many times to form the ultimate earth science literacy assessment tool.After the formal testing,the parameters of the assessment tool meet the requirements of the item response theory and the classical test theory,which means a reliable earth science literacy assessment tool is obtained.Third,the research summarizes and refines the overall characteristics of the earth science literacy of middle school students.On the whole,most of the grade two students can meet graduation requirements of junior high school in the understanding and application of earth science knowledge,the evidence and practice of earth science inquiry.The level of most grade two students in high school is higher than the graduation requirements of middle school.But there are fewer students who can meet the graduation requirements of high school.In addition,the students have a higher level of emotion and attitude towards earth science,but a lower level of questioning spirit dimension,which needs to be improved.Finally,on the basis of the above research,this study explores the reasons affecting the earth science literacy level of middle school students,and put forward relevant suggestions.This study analyzes and discusses the reasons for the current situation of middle school students’ earth science literacy from the perspective of students’ performance and teacher-student interviews.In view of the current situation of middle school students’ earth science literacy,the author puts forward four suggestions to improve it,such as rationalizing the earth science curriculum at the basic education stage,focusing on the improvement of teachers’ individual earth science literacy,reforming the existing teaching methods of earth science and innovating the assessment methods of earth science.

【关键词】 中学生地球科学素养测评
【Key words】 middle school studentsearth scienceliteracyassessment
  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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