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美国STEM教育发展研究 ——以学校科目社会史为视角

【作者】 杜文彬

【导师】 吴刚平;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2020, 博士

【副题名】以学校科目社会史为视角

【摘要】 作为应对21世纪人才需求挑战的战略举措,我国STEM教育的政策要求与实践探索方兴未艾,急需系统的基础研究和理论成果支持。与此相对照,美国作为最早开展STEM教育的发达国家,其推动STEM教育的历史脉络和经验教训,对于深化我国STEM教育的理论与实践研究,尤其是本土化的课程理论建构和实践创新具有重要的借鉴意义。美国STEM教育以20世纪80年代大众化科学教育改革提出“科学素养”作为开端。短短三十几年间,其已完成从科学教育改革思潮到实体课程的进化,并依托STEM学校,以“必修课”形式嵌入到课程体系之中。学校科目社会史视角下,美国STEM教育的生长空间构筑于学校教育人才供给与社会发展人才需求之间的差异。学校教育的课程目标、课程内容、课程实施手段、课程评价以及课程管理机制与社会人才需求的数量、类型、规格之间存在多重矛盾,这些矛盾构成了STEM教育的发展动因。以STEM教育发展多重矛盾的结构变化与矛盾解决主体在不同“行动者”间的转换为依据,可将美国STEM教育发展划分为STEM教育思想萌芽、课程体系初建、制度化推进以及标准化课程建设四个阶段。这背后既体现着学校教育对社会经济发展大潮的回应,也凝结着科教精英、民间团体以及政府等不同利益团体以教育改革回应社会矛盾的斗争与妥协。20世纪80年代至2000年是STEM教育的思想萌芽时期。美国政治经济发展新格局带来大量高素质劳动力需求,面向少数精英的结构主义教育已经难以满足新的人才结构需要。为解决上述矛盾,科教精英发起了以STS运动、2061计划为代表的大众化科学教育改革,以破除科学教育精英化的弊端。这次改革使科学教育呈现出大众化、素养化、跨学科整合以及标准化等有别于传统科学教育的新特征。STEM教育理念内核,包括面向国家劳动力需求的培养目标、跨学科整合的课程内容、秉承建构主义理念的教学方法、以及具有标准化评价烙印的课程评价,也在这一过程中逐渐构筑起来。尽管“STEM”这一专用术语尚未出现,其思想萌芽已经孕育在科学教育改革之中。但由于工程教育在STEM整合中缺乏实质性的地位,STEM教育尚未形成正式概念,也难以脱离于传统科学教育框架而获得自主发展。以“STEM教育”专门术语在2001年的出现为标志,2001年至2005年STEM教育处于课程体系初建阶段。随着美国不断向第三产业转化升级的产业结构调整,以及海外精英对STEM工作岗位的占领,硬科学在美国学校教育中不断式微。为保证市场中STEM专业人才储备,以工商业主利益为代表的民间组织纷纷要求学校加强硬科学教育。这一诉求为工程教育进入基础教育体系开辟了通道,使STEM教育获得“工程”拼图,实现了其概念的完整建构。完成概念建构的STEM教育在大型学术团体主导下实现了课程开发、教学设计、教师专业发展方面的长足进步,课程体系建设初见形态。但由于发展主体各自为政,STEM教育的课程体系建设也呈现出各课程要素发展不均衡、发展动力受限等缺点。要应对伴随再工业化战略而来的STEM人才需求大潮,就必须在课程管理体系中做出调整,在更强力量的主导下实现整体推进。伴随着2006年《崛起于聚集的风暴之上》报告的发布,STEM教育正式进入联邦视野。2006年至2011年是STEM教育制度化推进阶段。为配套促进制造业回岸的再工业化战略,美国政府通过财政支援、整体规划、项目引导以及法令保障手段,强势主导着STEM教育发展。同时,联邦政府还统合各利益主体形成发展合力,实现了STEM教育国家战略式推进。该阶段STEM教育进入蓬勃发展时期,各种STEM课程设计与实施层出不穷,积累了丰富的实践经验。但也由于财政的突然倾斜,该时期STEM教育呈现一种聚焦价值讨论而轻视实践质量的状态,功利主义与形式主义危机接踵而至。以2012年美国国家科学院对全美STEM教育项目的质量审查为开端,STEM教育进入标准化课程建设时期。为应对美国STEM教育发展过程中的形式主义与功利主义危机,曾一度缺位的课程专家重新主持STEM课程改革。以课程专家为主导,各发展力量通过构建横纵衔接的一贯制课程体系、开发聚焦学生自主探究的教学设计、以及制定州级STEM课程实施标准,实现STEM教育的标准化课程建设,并构筑起“联邦主导——地方规范——学校自主开设”的课程实施体系。至此,STEM教育依托STEM学校,以必修课身份在学校课程体系中获得一席之地。纵观美国STEM教育发展历程,可发现STEM教育各个阶段都和特定的社会与经济发展背景紧密相连,有其独特的发展机制,包括从外力推进与内部自觉的发展动因机制,以工程为基点的跨学科内容整合机制,以及由多元走向统一规范的课程实施机制。我国STEM教育正处于发展的初级阶段,呈现着发展力量自发性、课程开发多元化与课程实践零散化等特点。从学校科目社会史视角梳理美国STEM教育发展历程中的相关经验、教训与发展机制,对接我国STEM教育本土化发展现状,本研究认为美国STEM教育发展对我国具有以下发展启示:首先,在与“结构”的关系上,应适度超前于社会发展与学校教育间的矛盾暴露;其次,需联合各方“行动者”发挥多元主体共同推进效用;最后,还要遵循科目发展的一般规律,尤其在内容开发机制与实践机制上要契合我国当前教育发展背景与育人要求,选择适配的发展方式。

【Abstract】 As a strategic measure to meet the challenge of talent needs in the 21 st century,the policy requirements and practice of STEM education in China are still on the rise.The basic research and theoretical results of the system are urgently needed.In contrast,as the first developed country to launch STEM education,United States has accumulated rich experience in the development of STEM education,which is of great significance for deepening the localized curriculum theory construction and practical innovation of STEM education in China.The beginning of STEM education was from the popularization of science education in the 1980 s.In the past thirty years,STEM education in the United States has completed the evolution from an educational thought that secretly immersed in the reform of science education to the explicit curriculum,and is embedded into the curriculum system in the form of "compulsory courses" in STEM schools.From the perspective of social history of school subjects,the difference between the talent supply of school education and the labor demand of social development constitutes the development space of STEM education.The multiple contradictions between the demand for social labor and the curriculum goals,curriculum content,curriculum implementation methods,curriculum evaluation,and curriculum management mechanism of school education constitute the motivations for the development of STEM education.Taking the structural change of conflict between school education and social development as a clue,and based on the change of dominance of different actors,the development of STEM education can be divided into four stages: the germination of STEM education thoughts,the initial construction of STEM curriculum system,the institutionalization of STEM education development,and the construction of a standardized STEM curriculum system.This development process not only reflects the response of school education to the needs of socio-economic development,but also condenses the efforts of scientific elites,civil society groups,and government and other different stakeholders to use education reform to achieve social reform.The germination period of STEM education was from 1980 s to 2000.The new pattern of political and economic development in the United States has brought a lot of demand for high-quality labor.Structuralist education which focus on a few elites has been difficult to meet the needs of the new talent structure.In order to resolve this contradiction,the science and education elites initiated a popularizational science education reform,such as the STS movement and the 2061 plan,to change the goals of elite school education.These reforms brought new features of science education,including popularization,literacy orientation,interdisciplinary integration,and standardization.The cores of the STEM education concept,including the educational goals oriented to the needs of the country’s labor force,integrated curriculum content,adhering to the teaching methods in constructivism,and standardized course evaluations,have been gradually built up in the process.Although the term "STEM" has not yet appeared,its ideological bud has been born in the reform of science education.However,due to the lack of engineering education in STEM integration,STEM education has not yet formed a formal concept,and was also difficult to be independent of science education.Marked by the appearance of the term “STEM education” in 2001,the initial stage of the STEM curriculum system was from 2001 to 2005.Due to the softening of the industrial structure and the occupation of the STEM field by overseas experience,hard science has continued to decline in school education.This appeal opens up a channel for engineering education to enter the basic education system,and enables STEM education to obtain the "engineering" puzzle and realize the complete construction of its concept.with completed concept construction,STEM education has achieved great progress in curriculum development,instructional design,and professional development of teachers under the guidance of large academic groups.The curriculum system construction has begun to take shape.However,due to the lack of unity among development subjects,the construction of the curriculum system of STEM education also presents shortcomings such as uneven development of various curriculum elements and limited development momentum.To cope with the surge in STEM labor demand that comes with the re-industrialization strategy,it is necessary to make adjustments in the curriculum management system and achieve overall advancement under the promotion of a stronger force.The institutionalization of STEM education was from 2006 to 2011.With the release of the report “Rising Above the Gathering Storm” in 2006,STEM education officially entered the Federal vision.In order to support the re-industrialization strategy,the government has led the development of STEM education through financial support,master planning,project guidance and legal support methods,and has formed a joint development force by integrating various stakeholders to achieve STEM education strategic development.At this stage,STEM education has entered a period of vigorous development,and various STEM courses have been designed and implemented,which has accumulated rich practical experience.However,due to the sudden tilt of finances,STEM education in this period also showed a state of focusing on value discussions and underrating the quality of practice,which led to the crisis of utilitarianism and formalism.Starting with the National Academy of Sciences’ quality review of STEM education projects across the United States in 2012,STEM education has entered a period of standardized curriculum construction.In order to deal with the crisis of formalism and utilitarianism in the development of STEM education,the once-missing course experts re-hosted the STEM curriculum reform.Led by curriculum experts,various development forces have developed a horizontal and vertical consistent curriculum system,an instructional design that focus on students’ independent inquiry,and state-level STEM curriculum implementation standards.A "federal-led,local regulations,autonomous schools offer" curriculum implementation system has also been built up.So far,STEM education has relied on STEM schools to gain a place in the curriculum system as a required course.Throughout the development path of STEM education,we can find that all stages of STEM education are closely connected with specific social and economic development backgrounds.STEM education has a unique development mechanism,including an external-to-internal motivation mechanism,an interdisciplinary content integration mechanism based on engineering,and a curriculum implementation mechanism that moves from diversity to unification.China’s STEM education is in the initial stage of development.The characteristics include the spontaneity of development forces,the diversification of curriculum development mechanisms and the fragmentation of curriculum practice.Sorting out relevant experiences,lessons and development mechanisms in the development process of STEM education in the U.S.from the perspective of social history of school subjects.Meanwhile,considering the current situation of STEM educational localization development in China.This study believes that the development of STEM education in China should first be moderately exposed to the contradictions between socioeconomic development and school education;Secondly,it is necessary to unite the “actors” of various parties to give play to the multi-subjects and jointly advance the effectiveness;Finally,the general law of subject development should be followed,especially in terms of the content development mechanism and the practice mechanism,which must meet the current educational development background and education requirements of China,and choose an adapted development path.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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