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幼儿园教师质量监测研究 ——基于文化存在论教育学视角

【作者】 底会娟

【导师】 姜勇;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 学前教育学, 2020, 博士

【副题名】基于文化存在论教育学视角

【摘要】 随着知识经济时代的到来,人们越来越意识到世界各国教育的竞争实质就是师资的竞争。一个国家的教师质量如何,不仅直接影响着各级各类教育的质量,还会间接影响国家科学技术的发展水平和整个社会的文明进步程度。也因此,世界各国政策制定者和研究者把教育改革的目光和重点从“教育质量”延伸到“教师质量”,将提高教师质量和专业化水平,作为提高基础教育办学质量的突破口。2018年,国务院印发的《关于全面深化新时代教师队伍建设改革的意见》中明确提出“要全面提高幼儿园教师质量,建立一支高素质、善保教的教师队伍”。然而,当前的幼儿园教师质量现状如何?能否担负起教育改革和时代发展的重任?幼儿园教师队伍建设过程中存在哪些问题?影响幼儿园教师质量的主要因素是什么?如何有效支持和促进幼儿园教师质量的提高?为了回答上述问题,研究按照理论研究与实践检验相结合的原则,基于文化存在论教育学视角研制了幼儿园教师质量监测指标体系和工具,以上海市为例,从上海市7个区81所幼儿园中抽取了1768位幼儿园教师进行质量监测,以全面了解和深度考察上海市幼儿园教师的质量状况和影响因素,为上海市幼儿园教师质量的提高提供参考。本研究以文化存在论教育学为理论基础和研究视角,在借鉴基础教育质量监测设计流程及实施程序的基础上,确定了研究的整体思路:核心概念界定-指标体系构建-监测工具研制-监测样本抽取-监测调查实施-监测数据分析-形成监测报告-提出对策建议等环节。研究将定性研究与定量研究相结合,综合采用文献研究法、问卷调查法、访谈法等研究方法以及项目分析、因素分析、相关分析、聚类分析、方差分析、回归分析等统计分析方法进行研究,主要得出以下研究结论:文化存在论教育学思想下的幼儿园教师质量从“完整的人”的视角出发,认为幼儿园教师质量是教师满足教育教学及自我生命价值实现需要所应具备的能力、特质、品性等,集中体现为教师教育教学的高质量和有效性。研究在明确幼儿园教师质量内涵的基础上,基于文化存在论教育学视角,结合国内外有关幼儿园教师质量监测的相关研究,初步凝练出幼儿园教师质量的构成要素,随后邀请专家对幼儿园教师质量监测指标体系进行修订,最终确定了幼儿园教师质量监测的五因素模型,即幼儿园教师质量由生存之基、专业之智、文化之品、自由之性、信仰之情五个一级维度构成。研究者在对幼儿园教师进行访谈的基础上,遵循自编与借鉴相结合的方法初步编制了《幼儿园教师质量监测问卷》,在小范围试测后开展大范围问卷调查,经由项目分析、因素分析对问卷的框架和项目进行调整及验证,形成了具有较高信效度的正式问卷:幼儿园教师质量监测问卷内部一致性信度为0.95,折半信度为0.94;探索性因素分析共提取五个因子,五个因子累积方差贡献率为57.64%,五个公因子所包含的项目与问卷设计之初所预想的结构基本一致。同时,验证性因素分析的假设模型指数均符合结构方程模型的建议值,且大部分指数都具有较高的拟合性,说明问卷具有一定的结构效度。运用幼儿园教师质量监测正式问卷对上海市幼儿园教师质量进行调查,结果发现:1)上海市幼儿园教师的质量整体处于中上水平,幼儿园教师专业之智维度质量明显优于其他质量维度;2)专家教师、成熟教师相较于新手教师、经验教师的优势主要体现为教师的文化品性以及对职业的坚贞信仰;3)幼儿园教师质量存在一定的区域差异,主城区幼儿园教师质量整体高于郊区幼儿园教师;4)公办幼儿园教师在教师质量的大部分维度优于民办幼儿园教师;不同园所等级的幼儿园教师质量整体呈现出由二级园-一级园-示范园递增的状态;5)从教师的人口学变量来看,随着教师年龄、教龄的增长、职称晋升、职务提高、学历提升、薪资水平的增加,幼儿园教师质量也得到不同程度的提高;同时,学前教育专业毕业的幼儿园教师质量明显优于非学前专业幼儿园教师;优秀绩效的幼儿园教师质量明显高于普通绩效教师;6)幼儿园教师质量多元回归的结果表明,教师的职务、年龄、工作绩效、职称、学历、所在地域是影响幼儿园教师质量的重要因素。综上所述,本研究界定了幼儿园教师质量的内涵,构建了幼儿园教师质量监测指标体系,研制了幼儿园教师质量监测工具,分析了上海市幼儿园教师质量现状,提出了上海市幼儿园教师质量的提升路径。这些研究和发现对于更好的理解幼儿园教师质量及教师质量监测,为幼儿园教师质量监测工作的开展和幼儿园教师质量提升提供了理论支撑和实践指导,也为本领域今后的相关研究提供借鉴。

【Abstract】 With the coming of the era of knowledge economy,people are more and more aware that the competition of education in the world is essentially the competition of teachers.The quality of a country’s teachers not only directly affects the quality of all kinds of education at all levels,but also indirectly affects the development level of national science and technology and the level of civilization and progress of the whole society.Therefore,policy makers and researchers all over the world have extended the vision and focus of education reform from “education quality” to “teacher quality”,and will improve the quality and professionalism of teachers as a breakthrough to improve the quality of basic education.In 2018,the State Council issued the opinions on comprehensively deepening the construction and reform of teachers in the new era,which clearly stated that “it is necessary to comprehensively improve the quality of kindergarten teachers and establish a high-quality and good teaching team”.However,what is the current situation of kindergarten teachers’ quality in China? Can they shoulder the responsibility of educational reform and the development of the times? What are the problems in the construction of kindergarten teachers? What are the main factors that affect the quality of kindergarten teachers? How to effectively support and promote the quality of kindergarten teachers? In order to answer the above-mentioned questions,the research has developed a kindergarten teacher quality monitoring index system and tool based on the principle of the combination of theoretical research and practical test and the perspective of cultural existential pedagogy.Taking Shanghai as an example,1768 kindergarten teachers from 81 kindergartens in 7 districts of Shanghai have been selected for quality monitoring,so as to comprehensively understand and deeply investigate the quality of kindergarten teachers’ quality status and influencing factors provide reference for the improvement of kindergarten teachers’ quality in Shanghai.Based on the theory and research perspective of Cultural Existentialism Pedagogy,this study uses the design process and implementation process of basic education quality monitoring for reference to determine the overall thinking of the study:core concept definition-index system construction-development of monitoring tools-Sampling of monitoring samples-organization of investigation and testing-Analysis of monitoring data-formation of monitoring reports-improvement of countermeasures and suggestions.The research combines the qualitative research with the quantitative research,and comprehensively uses the research methods such as literature research,questionnaire survey,interview,project analysis,factor analysis,correlation analysis,cluster analysis,variance analysis,regression analysis and other statistical analysis methods to study.The main conclusions are as follows:Based on the theory of Cultural Existentialism Pedagogy,the quality of kindergarten teachers,from the perspective of "complete person",is considered to be the ability,trait and character that teachers should possess to meet the needs of teaching and the realization of their own life value,which is embodied in the high quality and effectiveness of teachers’ education and learning.On the basis of clarifying the connotation of kindergarten teachers’ quality,based on the perspective of cultural existential pedagogy,combined with the relevant research on kindergarten teachers’ quality monitoring at home and abroad,the research preliminarily condenses the elements of kindergarten teachers’ quality,then invite experts to revise the quality monitoring index system of kindergarten teachers,and finally determines the kindergarten teachers’ quality monitoring five factor model,that is to say,the quality of kindergarten teachers consists of five dimensions: the basis of existence,the wisdom of profession,the quality of culture,the nature of freedom and the feeling of belief.On the basis of interviews with kindergarten teachers,the researcher initially compiled the kindergarten teacher quality monitoring questionnaire by combining self-made and reference methods.After the small-scale test,the researcher carried out a large-scale questionnaire survey.Through project analysis,exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis,the framework and project of the questionnaire were adjusted and verified,forming a high credit effect formal questionnaire of : the internal consistency reliability of the quality monitoring questionnaire for kindergarten teachers is 0.95,half reliability is 0.94;exploratory factor analysis extracts five factors,and the cumulative variance contribution rate of the five factors is 57.64%.The items included in the five common factors are basically consistent with the expected structure at the beginning of the questionnaire design.At the same time,the hypothesis model index of confirmatory factor analysis basically conforms to the suggested value of structural equation model,and most of the indexes have high fitting,which shows that the questionnaire has certain structural validity.The formal questionnaire of kindergarten teacher quality monitoring was used to investigate the quality of kindergarten teachers in Shanghai,The results showed that: 1)The quality of kindergarten teachers in Shanghai is in the middle and upper level,and the quality of kindergarten teachers’ professional intelligence dimension is significantly better than other dimensions;2)There are some regional differences in the quality of kindergarten teachers.The quality of kindergarten teachers in the main city is higher than that in the suburb;3)The quality of teachers in public kindergartens is better than that in private kindergartens in most dimensions;the quality of teachers in kindergartens at different levels is increasing from secondary park to primary park to demonstration park;4)From the perspective of teachers’ demographic variables,with the increase of teachers’ age,teaching age,professional title,position,education background and salary level,the quality of kindergarten teachers has been improved to varying degrees;meanwhile,the quality of kindergarten teachers graduating from preschool education is significantly better than that of non preschool professional kindergarten teachers;the quality of kindergarten teachers with excellent performance is significantly higher In general performance teachers;5)The result of multiple regression shows that the position,age,performance,professional title,education background and location of kindergarten teachers are the important factors affecting the quality of kindergarten teachers.All in all,this study defines the connotation of kindergarten teachers’ quality,constructs the kindergarten teachers’ quality monitoring index system,develops the kindergarten teachers’ quality monitoring tool,analyzes the current situation of kindergarten teachers’ quality in Shanghai,and puts forward the improvement path of kindergarten teachers’ quality in Shanghai.These studies and findings are helpful for better understanding of kindergarten teachers’ quality and teachers’ quality monitoring.At the same time,it provides theoretical support and practical support for the development of kindergarten teachers’ quality monitoring work and kindergarten teachers’ quality improvement,and also provides reference for future research in this field.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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