【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学， 课程与教学论， 2020， 博士
【Abstract】 With the advent of the "big data" era and "Internet + Education" era,the concept of "data" has gradually penetrated into all walks of life and has had a profound impact on production.In-depth data mining and analysis,and data-driven decision-making have become one of the necessary skills for future citizens.Whether it is the digital literacy of students issued by UNESCO in 2018 or the PISA 2021 mathematical framework issued by the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2019,it is advocated that students should have relevant capabilities and literacy of information and data.Statistical Reasoning is developed gradually by students in the process of solving statistical problems.They can use statistical concepts to make inferences,understand how statistical information is derived,explain based on existing data and make statistical inferences.meanwhile,the ability of describing data displays(D),organizing and reducing data(O),representing data(R),analyzing and interpreting data(A)are also the requirement of statistical reasoning.The statistical reasoning ability fits well with the "age demands" of future citizens in the "big data" era.However,traditional statistics teaching has many problems such as confusing statistics with mathematics teaching,attaching importance to the training of students’ statistical skills and operations,neglecting the training of students’ "statistical" thinking and reasoning,and students’ easy loss of interest in statistics.Many researchers in the world have begun to explore the attempt of statistical teaching reform,and have achieved certain results,and have pointed out that they hope to implement it at an early stage of school mathematics education.This research aims to change the current status of statistical teaching and explore the teaching mode of elementary school students focusing on statistical reasoning,with a view to providing theoretical support and practical suggestions for statistical teaching in primary school.This research is based on three aspects of problems of statistical teaching in primary schools in China:(1)Teachers have "separated the close connection between statistical teaching and real life",leading to "statistical problem-solving activities reduced to low-level,simple memory-based imitation activities;(2)Teachers do not realize that "statistical activities are a complete problem-solving process","ignore students’ active participation in statistical activities","cannot efficiently use cooperative learning methods",thereby reducing students’ interests on statistical learning;(3)Teachers ignore the reasoning and expression of students in the process of solving statistical problems due to objective reasons such as “few statistics content in primary school and low proportion of statistics in examinations” and subjective reasons such as “lectures,speeches are rigidly followed by textbooks without carefully designing and vivid explaining”,“simply introducing without expansion” which leads to teachers do not pay enough attention to statistics.So,this research is based on situational cognition theory,situational learning theory,social culture theory,and social construction theory.It takes design research as a guide to methodology,and borrows the research paradigm of design research,"formative research," and has gone through the prototype of teaching mode.The construction,iteration and modification of the three rounds of teaching implementation,finally got an effective teaching mode focusing on the cultivation of statistical reasoning ability of elementary school students(referred to as "FC-SR teaching mode").This research focuses on three research questions:(1)What is the prototype of teaching mode focusing on statistical reasoning ability for elementary school students based on relevant literature and teaching theory,combined with China’s statistical teaching practice?(2)How to modify and refine the prototype of the teaching mode in specific teaching practice?(3)What effect has the teaching mode produced? Carried out three specific work:First,based on the content of statistical reasoning in the literature review,relevant suggestions and strategies for teaching statistical content in elementary school,combing the existing "problem-solving" teaching mode and the principles of statistical reasoning learning environment construction,sort out three core elements of the teaching mode: real data problem situations,student-centered problem-solving activities,discourses that emphasize statistical reasoning ability,and on the basis of these three core elements,combined with statistical teaching in the primary stage,the characteristics and current situation of the teaching mode of "focusing on the cultivation of statistical reasoning ability" prototype are proposed.Second,the author entered the S school in East China,with the assistance of relevant teachers,embodied the prototype of the teaching mode,carried out three rounds of teaching iterations,combined with the students’ specific performance in class,after-class feedback questionnaires,after-class interviews and observer Teacher C’s suggestions to determine the reasons for the revision of the teaching mode,and in the three rounds of teaching,the prototype of the teaching mode is continuously revised and refined.Thirdly,testing and surveying students through the use of statistical reasoning test questions and students’ attitudes towards statistics,meanwhile,combining the “formative” data of students’ classroom performance and after-class interviews in the three rounds of teaching to determine the effort of this teaching mode.The final conclusion of this research is the construction of a teaching mode focusing on the cultivation of statistical reasoning ability of elementary school students(FC-SR teaching mode),which includes six operational procedures:(1)The creation of real data problem situations;(2)A preliminary exploration of cooperative problem solving;(3)Group display and self-evaluation;(4)Re-examination of returning to the real situation;(5)Explaining relevant statistical content;(6)Summarizing and reflections,and giving detailed basis and operational suggestions.The two teaching effects of FC-SR teaching mode is determined using test questions of statistical reasoning and students’ attitdes towards statistics to test and investigate students and combined with “formative” data such as classroom performance and after-class interviews during the three rounds of teaching.FC-SR teaching mode can:(1)improve students’ statistical reasoning ability(mainly manifested in the significant improvement of sub-statistical reasoning ability,such as organizing and reducing data(O)and analyzing and interpreting data(A);(2)has a positive impact on students’ attitudes towards statistics,expressed in the positive improvement of affect dimensions,cognitive competence dimensions,difficulty dimensions and interest dimensions.At the same time,the FC-SR teaching mode also has a certain impact on students’ understanding of the differences between statistics and mathematics,the "uncertainty" of statistics,and the charm of statistics.
- 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学