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渐摄与融构 ——初任科学教师专业成长叙事研究

【作者】 邹逸

【导师】 李雁冰;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2020, 博士

【副题名】初任科学教师专业成长叙事研究

【摘要】 初任科学教师的专业成长是保证科学教育改革品质与成效的关键环节,也是科学教师教育的重要方面。面对身份角色转变、文化场域更迭、理论与实践碰撞的全新情境,初任科学教师必然会遭遇不适。他们需要在不适中寻觅新知新途,实现各个面向上的专业成长,以使自身在学校场域中渐渐安顿。那么,初任科学教师究竟会遭遇哪些专业成长问题?他们又是如何看待和解决这些问题的呢?真实的初任科学教师专业成长样态内蕴着什么样的价值意义?对于相关主体而言又有何可为空间?本研究正是旨在对真实、微观、具体情境中的初任科学教师专业成长问题进行研究与探讨。通过对相关主题的已有研究进行梳理,本研究将初任科学教师专业成长的具体指向聚焦在“教学知能发展”、“学校文化适应”、“身份认同”三个方面。进而以“实践-认知理论”、“文化适应理论”、“身份认同理论”等观点对上述三大具体指向展开具体的分析与探讨。研究采用质性研究中的叙事研究方法,通过“实地”、“田野”的方式,对浙江省杭州市S中学11位初任科学教师的专业实践生活进行了观察、调查与访谈,详细描述与呈现了初任科学教师专业成长的实然样态,并进一步揭示了这一实然样态背后的实质意义。研究发现:第一,初任科学教师的教学知能发展是一个持续的“经验断裂”与“知识具身”的过程。面对不断袭来的问题情境,他们往往会发现自己已有的认知经验不足以有效应对。他们需要不断的学习、尝试、行动、反思、检验、确认,以吸纳与生成新的知识与能力。而且,这些新的知识与能力,经由具体问题解决过程的澄明,因而具有了情境脉络意义与个体具身意义,成为初任科学教师关于教学知能的“真”的信念与行为指南。同时,我们也可以深切地发现,文化因素对于初任科学教师教学知能发展的影响。这种影响浸润于学校生活的方方面面,无孔不入、深入人心,向初任科学教师清晰地传达着学校主流的价值取向,进而在很大程度上决定着他们思维与行动的着眼点与方向。第二,初任科学教师的学校文化适应过程主要表现为自我原有文化特征与学校主流文化价值之间的博弈。这一过程中,初任科学教师不断体验着自身与新情境之间的文化差距,进而扬弃性地做出文化适应趋向上的自我选择。尽管每位教师的学校文化适应情况有所差异,不过,他们每一次对文化差距的感知,可以说都是对自己仍是“局外人”的体认,而他们于相应文化活动中的每一种选择及行为,都至少表达了其成为“局内人”的期待与尝试。初任科学教师的学校文化适应,实则就是一种文化比较、选择与认同的过程。在此过程中,他们逐渐明晰“局内”的文化特征,并逐渐建构起作为“局内人”的自己。当然,初任科学教师在适应学校文化的同时,也在物质文化、制度文化、精神文化、人际关系等不同层面,对学校文化带来了不少全新的创生性发展。第三,初任科学教师的身份认同是一个对作为“科学教师”的自我的不断寻求的过程。在这个过程中,初任科学教师不断感知与体察着内在自我与外在自我之间的差异,进而在选择与应对中不断重塑着思想理念上认同的自我和行为表现中的自我;他们不断探寻着科学教师群体内部的典型特质及其与不同学科教师群体间的本质差异,从而在参照和比较中体认着作为科学教师群体成员的自我;他们不断理解着学校场域中的多元文化价值导向,以不同的衡量标准不断切换着自己的言行举止,以使自己适应不同情境中的文化身份。综合上述研究发现,本研究认为,初任科学教师的专业成长处于学校场域内外空间区隔与文化融通的整体背景之中,大体表现出渐、摄、融、构的过程性特征。在这一过程中,对于各种社会资本的积累成为促进初任科学教师专业成长的工具需求,而从共同体中汲取养分,则能直接有效地实现初任科学教师的专业成长。同时,本研究从师范生职业幸福感的养成、师范生知识结构的完善、师范生“基本功”的夯实、师范生社会文化能力的培养等方面,对科学教师的职前培养进行了再思考;从主动规划专业成长、深度理解和落实科学的人文价值、提升教学生成能力、全面建设初任科学教师支持体系等方面,对科学教师的职后成长进行了再思考。最后,就本研究存在的局限以及未来研究继续深入的方向进行了些许探讨。

【Abstract】 The novice science teachers’ professional growth is a key link to ensure the quality and effectiveness of science education reform,and also an important aspect of science teacher education.In the face of the transformation of identity and role,the change of cultural field,the collision of theory and practice,the novice science teachers will inevitably encounter discomfort.They need to find new knowledge and new ways to achieve professional growth in all aspects,so that they can gradually settle down in the school field.So,What kind of professional growth problems will novice science teachers encounter?How do they view and solve these problems?What is the value and significance of the real professional growth of the novice science teachers?What can be done for related subjects?The purpose of this study is to research the professional growth of novice science teachers in real,micro and specific situations.Based on a number of existing studies on related topics,this study focuses on three aspects of the novice science teachers’ professional growth:the development of teaching knowledge and ability;the adaptation of school culture;the professional identity.Furthermore,this study analyzes and discusses these three aspects from the perspectives of “Practical Cognition Theory”,“Cultual Adaptation Theory”and “Identity Theory”.Using the narrative research method of qualitative research,this study observed,investigated and interviewed the professional practice life of 11 novice science teachers in Hangzhou S Middle School,Zhejiang Province.It described and presented the real state of the professional growth of novice science teachers in detail,and further revealed the significance behind the real state.This study found that:Firstly,it is a continuous process of “experience fracture”and “knowledge embodied” for the development of teaching knowledge and ability of novice science teachers.In the face of the problem situation,they often find that their existing cognitive experience is not enough to deal with it effectively.They need to learn,try,act,reflect,test and confirm constantly to absorb and generate new knowledge and ability.Moreover,these new knowledge and abilities,through the clarification of the specific problem-solving process,have the context significance and individual specific significance,and become the faith and behavior guide of the novice science teachers.At the same time,we can also find the influence of cultural factors on the development of novice science teachers’ teaching knowledge and ability.This kind of influence infiltrates all aspects of school life,all pervasive,deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.It clearly conveys the value orientation of the school mainstream to the novice science teachers,and then determines their focus and direction of thinking and action to a great extent.Secondly,the process of school culture adaptation of novice science teachers is mainly manifested in the game between their original cultural characteristics and the school’s mainstream cultural values.In this process,the novice science teachers constantly experience the cultural distance between themselves and the new situation,and then make the self choice on the trend of cultural adaptation.Although every teacher’s school cultural adaptation will be different,however,every time they perceive the cultural distance,it can be said that they are still “putsiders”,and every choice and behavior in their corresponding cultural activities,at least express their expectations and attempts to becomen “insiders”.It can be seen that the school cultural adaptation of the novice science teachers is actually a process of cultural comparison,selection and identification.In this process,they gradually clarify the cultural characteristics of “insiders”and gradually construct themselves as “insiders”.Of course,the novice science teachers adapt to the school cultrue,but also in the material culture,institutional culture,spiritual culture,interpersonal relationship and other different levels,bringing a lot of new creative development to the school culture.Thirdly,the identity of the novice science teachers is a process of seeking for self as a “science teacher”.In this process,the novice science teachers are constantly perceiving and perceiving the differences between the internal self and the external selfe,and then constantly reshaping the selfe identified in ideology and behavior;they constantly explore the typical characteristics of science teachers and the essential differences between different subject groups,so as to recognize themselves as members of science teachers in reference and comparison;they constantly understand the multi-cultural value orientation in the school field,constantly switch their words and deeds with different measurement standards,so as to adapt themselves to the cultural identity in different situations.Based on the above research findings,this study finds that the novice science teachers’ professional growth is in the overall background of the spatial separation and cultural integration within and outside the school field,and generally shows the process characteristics of contact,absorb,integrate,and construct.The accumulation of all kinds of social capital has become a tool demand to promote the professional growth of the novice science teachers,and to draw nutrients from the community can directly and effectively achieve the professional growth.At the same time,this study rethinks the pre service training of science teachers from the aspects of the cultivation of professional well-being of normal students,the improvement of knowledge structure of normal students,the consolidation of “basic skills”of normal students,the cultivation of social and cultural ability of normal students;rethinks the post career growth of science teachers from the aspects of active planning of professional growth,deeply understanding and implement the humanistic value of science,improvement of teaching generation ability,and comprehensive construction of the support system for the novice science teachers.Finally,this study discusses some shortages and the future expectations.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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