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基于网络的科学探究促进小学生科学身份认同发展的研究

【作者】 黄璐

【导师】 裴新宁;

【作者基本信息】 华东师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2020, 博士

【摘要】 科学身份认同是科学学习重要目标之一,然而研究显示学生的科学身份认同日渐式微,这一现象不仅会影响学生科学素养的提升,而且会制约国家科技实力的发展。“如何提高学生的科学身份认同”正在成为国际学界的新关注。随着互联网、大数据、人工智能等技术的蓬勃发展,我们不得不思考一个新命题:数字化时代如何提高“数字土著”学生的科学身份认同?有研究者提出,利用信息技术进行科学探究可以发展学生的科学身份认同。然则,已有研究多是理念探讨,鲜有足够的实证数据支撑利用信息技术进行科学探究可以有效地促进学生科学身份认同发展。“利用信息技术进行科学探究能否促进学生科学身份认同发展?为何能?如何能?”这些问题亟待我们深入研究。在此背景下,本研究选择了基于网络的科学探究环境作为实验环境,以WISE(Web-based Inquiry Science Environment)平台作为实验平台,以小学五年级学生为研究对象,探索基于网络的科学探究(本文简称为“网络科学探究”)促进小学生科学身份认同发展的规律,研究问题有以下三个:问题一:网络科学探究能否促进小学生科学身份认同发展,有何特征?问题二:网络科学探究中哪些因素会促进小学生科学身份认同发展?问题三:网络科学探究促进小学生科学身份认同发展有哪些路径?本研究采用文献研究法、实验研究法、问卷调查法和焦点小组访谈等多种研究方法进行了三个子研究。子研究一通过“网络科学探究、常规环境下的科学探究、常规科学课堂学习对小学生科学身份认同影响的对比实验”,重点考察了网络科学探究对小学生科学身份认同发展的影响及特征;通过“反射性评价对从事网络科学探究的小学生科学身份认同的影响实验”,考察了反射性评价对从事网络科学探究的小学生科学身份认同发展的作用。子研究二运用相关分析方法和基于模糊集定性比较分析方法,探索了网络科学探究中小学生科学身份认同发展的影响因素。子研究三在子研究二的基础上,运用偏最小二乘法结构方程模型建构网络科学探究促进小学生科学身份认同发展的路径。本研究表明:网络科学探究能有效促进小学生科学身份认同发展,特征表现为能更好地促进“认可”维度(认可自己,也被他人认可)和“表现”维度(从事科学实践的社会行为)的提高;网络科学探究还能有效提升小学生的科学兴趣、科学参与和科技职业意愿这些重要的科学素养品质。网络科学探究促进小学生科学身份认同发展是一个包括六个因素交互作用的复杂过程,它们形成了三条可能的发展路径:路径一发生在学习活动层面,通过提升小学生的网络科学探究兴趣、网络科学探究参与、网络科学探究效果自我评价(知识、方法和交流合作)和网络科学探究自信心来促进他们的科学身份认同发展;路径二发生在学习活动和社会互动两个层面,通过提升小学生的网络科学探究兴趣、网络科学探究参与、网络科学探究效果自我评价(知识、方法和交流合作)和反射性评价来促进他们的科学身份认同发展;路径三发生在社会互动层面,通过小学生的合作伙伴评价和反射性评价来促进他们的科学身份认同发展。本研究建议将学习科学理论与方法指导下的基于信息技术的科学探究环境应用到学校科学教育中,关注学生学习特征的变化,为学生创设社会性互动的机会,从而激发学生的科学学习兴趣,增强学生的科学参与,提升学生的科学学习自信心,最终促进学生科学身份认同的发展。本研究在理论、实践和方法三个层面具有一定的贡献与创新,为促进学生科学身份认同发展和科学教育方法创新提供了理论依据与实证支持。

【Abstract】 Science identity is one of the important objectives of science learning.In fact,it is a recent phenomenon that students’ science identity is gradually declining,which will not only hinder the promotion of students’ scientific literacy,but also restrict the development of national science and technology strength."How to improve students’ science identity" has attracted the attention of researchers and international scholars.With the vigorous development of internet,big data,artificial intelligence and other technologies,in such a new era,we have to think about a new topic: how to improve the science identity of "digital native" students in the digital age? Some researchers have proposed that scientific inquiry with information technology can develop student’s science identity.Up to now,most of the existing researches focus on the discussion of ideas,and there is not enough empirical data to support that the use of information technology in scientific inquiry can promote the development of students’ science identity effectively."Can scientific inquiry with information technology promote the development of students’ science identity? Why? How?" These questions need to be further explored and discussed.In this context,this dissertation tries to explore the laws of web-based scientific inquiry promoting students’ science identity development,using web-based scientific inquiry environment as the experimental environment,taking the WISE(Web-based Inquiry Science Environment)as the experimental platform and choosing fifth grade students as the research participants,This dissertation focuses on the following three questions:(1)Can web-based scientific inquiry promote the development of science identity of primary school students?(2)Which factors can affect the development of primary school students’ science identity in web-based scientific inquiry?(3)What are the pathways on which web-based scientific inquiry promotes the development of primary school students’ science identity?In this dissertation,literature research,experimental research,questionnaire survey and focus group interview were used to conduct three sub-studies.The first substudy focuses on the influence and characteristics of web-based scientific inquiry on the development of primary school students’ science identity through "the comparative experiment about the influence of web-based scientific inquiry,scientific inquiry in the conventional environment and regular science classroom learning on primary school students’ science identity".Through "the experiment about the effect of reflected appraisal on the science identity of primary school students who engaged in web-based scientific inquiry",this dissertation investigates the effect of reflected appraisal on the development of science identity of primary school students.In the second sub-study,using the correlation analysis and Fuzzy-Set qualitative comparative analysis,the factors affecting the development of primary school students’ science identity were explored.Base on the second sub-study,the third sub-study used the structural equation model to establish the path of web-based scientific inquiry to promote the development of primary school students’ science identity.This research shows that web-based scientific inquiry can effectively promote the development of primary school students’ science identity.There are some characters: it can promote the improvement of the "recognition" dimension(self-recognition and self-recognition by others)and the "performance" dimension(social behavior engaged in scientific practice).Web-based scientific inquiry can also effectively arouse the interest of science,improve the engagement in science and science and technology career intent which are important qualities of scientific literacy,web-based scientific inquiry to promote science identity development is a complicated process including six factors that interact with each other,which comprise three possible development pathways: Path 1 serves at the level of learning activities,which promote the science identity of primary school students by enhancing their web-based science inquiry interest,web-based scientific inquiry engagement,self-evaluation of the effect of webbased science inquiry(knowledge,methods,communication and cooperation)and selfconfidence in web-based science inquiry;Path 2 takes place at the learning activities and social interaction levels.It promotes the development of science identity of primary school students by enhancing their web-based scientific inquiry interest,web-based scientific inquiry engagement,self-evaluation of web-based scientific inquiry(knowledge,methods,communication and cooperation)and reflected appraisal.Path 3 takes place at the level of social interaction which promotes the development of science identity of primary school students through partner appraisals and reflected appraisal.This dissertation suggests that the scientific inquiry environment based on information technology under the guidance of learning sciences’ theories and methods should be applied to school science education,the changes of students’ learning characteristics need more attention.Students should have more access to social interaction,which can stimulate students’ motivation of science learning,improve the students’ science engagement,boost student’s self-confidence and finally promote the development of students’ science identity.This dissertation has certain contributions and innovations in theory,practice and method,which provides some theoretical basis and empirical support for promoting the development of students’ science identity and enlightening the innovation of scientific education methods in the future.

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  • 【网络出版投稿人】 华东师范大学
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