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指向核心素养的初中音乐欣赏教学策略研究

【作者】 吴秉旭

【导师】 马云鹏;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2021, 博士

【摘要】 为了全面贯彻党的十九大提出的教育方针,落实“立德树人”的根本任务和发展素质教育,教育部提出深化基础教育课程与教学改革的目标,并提倡在中小学探索指向核心素养的教育的实践。高中各学科己经明确了学科核心素养,其中,“审美感知”、“艺术表现”、“文化理解”是音乐学科核心素养三大主要维度。《义务教育音乐课程标准》虽然还没有明确提出学科核心素养,但与高中的课程目标是一脉相承的,特别是《义务教育阶段音乐课程标准(2011)》明确提出“感受与欣赏是音乐学习的重要领域,是整个音乐学习活动的基础,是培养学生音乐审美能力的有效途径。”可见,初中音乐课程与教学中培养学生核心素养也是一个必然的趋势。社会媒体的音乐文化生活中,呈现出雅俗交织、美丑难辨的复杂情形,会不同程度地影响音乐欣赏教学,给教师们带来一些困扰。音乐教育如果不适应这种新的形势,课堂音乐欣赏教学如果不密切结合课外音乐教育环境,给学生必要的指导,那就难以达到音乐欣赏的审美教育目的。有效引导学生用审美的能力去鉴别、选择、品味各种多元化的音乐,这是音乐教育值得探讨的、有意义的课题。中小学音乐课程教学改革实践取得成效的同时,我们也看到对于音乐欣赏教学的深入研究不足,中小学音乐欣赏教学仍然存在一些需要深入具体研究的问题。本研究的基本问题是:1.初中音乐欣赏教学策略的运用现状如何?2.指向核心素养的初中音乐欣赏教学策略有哪些?3.影响初中音乐欣赏教学策略设计和实施的因素有哪些?基于现有的研究,以及对音乐课程相关理论与初中音乐课程的理解,本研究结合《标准》关于音乐素养、学段目标、内容标准的相关表述,构建了初中阶段的音乐核心素养框架。本研究将初中音乐核心素养内涵理解为:通过音乐课程的学习逐步形成的正确价值观念、必备品格及关键能力,培养和发展学生对音乐的兴趣、音乐的审美感知、音乐表达能力、音乐创造能力、文化理解等音乐核心素养。音乐欣赏课是学生素质教育的重要渠道,音乐欣赏教学是初中音乐学习的重要领域,通过在初中这一学生音乐核心素养形成和发展的重要时期开展教育教学活动,可以为高中音乐鉴赏课程的有效开展奠定基础。本研究采用质化研究的取向,通过课堂观察、访谈、案例分析的方法收集和分析研究资料,分析初中音乐欣赏课的教学策略及其对音乐核心素养的培养状况。对有代表性的4节常规课和6节优质课的课堂观察和深入分析,对教师、学生和教研员的访谈,发现初中音乐欣赏教学策略运用的现状和存在的问题,发现实践教学与《标准》和音乐核心素养要求的差距,面对现实应当解决哪些问题。通过研究发现主要有哪些可以有效提高初中音乐欣赏教学质量的可行策略,深入探究影响初中音乐欣赏教学策略设计和实施的因素,并提出初中音乐欣赏教学策略的改进建议。研究的主要发现包括:1.教研员和中学音乐教学名师对音乐欣赏教学策略认同度高。通过分析音乐教师常用的音乐欣赏教学策略和优质录像课中运用的音乐欣赏教学策略,发掘切实可行的音乐欣赏教学策略,以解决初中音乐教师设计和运用音乐欣赏教学策略的困扰。2.教师在优质课中运用音乐教学策略的特征:(1)优质课中音乐欣赏教学策略与教学内容及教学目标适合度高;(2)优质课中音乐欣赏教学策略关注发展学生音乐核心素养,但对学生文化理解音乐核心素养的培养不够充分;(3)优质课中的音乐欣赏教学策略运用类型较丰富;(4)优质课中音乐欣赏教学策略的运用都较充分;(5)优质课中有效组合运用音乐欣赏教学策略的方式较多。3.有效的初中音乐欣赏教学策略有:操作体验音乐欣赏教学策略、主体经验音乐欣赏教学策略、文化体验音乐欣赏教学策略、听觉分析音乐欣赏教学策略、情境游戏音乐欣赏教学策略、情境感悟音乐欣赏教学策略、类比学习音乐欣赏教学策略、主题发展音乐欣赏教学策略等。在对优质课的分析中,新发现了有效的、创新的音乐欣赏教学策略:分组合作体验与探究的音乐欣赏教学策略、信息延伸与探究的音乐欣赏教学策略、问题引导聆听音乐欣赏教学策略、运用联觉辅助聆听的音乐欣赏教学策略、师生交流式音乐欣赏教学策略、师生合作探究发现的音乐欣赏教学策略等。4.一些音乐欣赏教学策略体现了音乐核心素养的培养。操作体验音乐欣赏教学策略、主体经验音乐欣赏教学策略、听觉分析音乐欣赏教学策略、师生交流式音乐欣赏教学策略等的运用,促进了学生对音乐的持续兴趣、审美感知、音乐表达能力、音乐创造能力等音乐核心素养的发展,但对学生文化理解音乐核心素养发展有所欠缺。5.影响初中教师音乐欣赏教学策略设计和实施的因素包括内部因素和外部因素。内部因素主要包括:教师对核心素养及音乐欣赏教育价值的认同;教师的音乐专业素养;教师的艺术知识与其他学科知识素养;教师教学知识与技能;教师职业道德修养;教师教学设计与组织能力;教师对学生知识和态度与特质的了解等。外部因素主要包括:音乐课程改革;媒体文化;教育行政的政策和教研员的专业支持等。在以上研究发现的基础上,提出音乐欣赏课教学可供参考的教学策略改进建议:1.教学策略选择与有效实施应指向整合的教学目标;2.依据教学内容有针对性的选择教学策略;3.注重多种教学策略的组合运用,充分培养学生的音乐核心素养;4.将教学策略与环境因素有机融合。

【Abstract】 In order to thoroughly implement the educational principles proposed at the 19 th CPC National Congress,to fulfill the fundamental missions of morality education and to develop quality education,the Educational Ministry advanced the objectives of deepening the reform of the elementary education curricula and teaching and advocated the educational practice aimed at the core competence of subjects in primary and middle schools.The parameters of core competence for all subjects in high schools have been laid down,of which the core competence of music teaching includes aesthetic perception,artistic performance and cultural understanding.There is some relevance between the music curricula criteria in middle and high schools.“Perception and appreciation is one crucial component of music learning,the base of all the music learning activities and one of effective ways of cultivating students’ music aesthetic competence.”so was the significance of Perception and Appreciation clarified in The Music Curricula Criteria during Compulsory Education(2011).Although The Music Curricula Criteria during Compulsory Education has not yet made clear what the core competence of music should be,the curricula objectives agree with those of high schools,which requires it as one necessary tendency to cultivate students’ core competence during music teaching.In the music culture life of social media,there are complicated situations,which can affect music appreciation teaching and bring some troubles to teachers.If music education does not adapt to this new situation,and if the classroom music appreciation teaching is not closely combined with the extracurricular music education environment,giving students the necessary guidance,it is difficult to achieve the aesthetic education purpose of music appreciation.It is a meaningful topic worthy of discussion in music education to consider how to effectively guide students to use aesthetic ability to identify,choose and taste all kinds of diversified music.On the one hand,the teaching reform for music courses in primary and middle schools has achieved a lot.On the other hand,we can also see that there are still some limitations in some depth research on music appreciation teaching.The basic questions this study tries to answer are: 1.Junior high school music appreciation teaching strategy use present situation?2.What are the music appreciation teaching strategies aimed at core competence?3.What are the factors concerning music appreciation teaching designs and practices in middle schools?Based on the research at hand and the understanding of relevant theories of music and music course in middle schools,this study constructed the framework of core competence for music during middle schools by combining the relevant expressions in the Criteria concerning music competence,sessional objectives and content criteria.The connotation of music core competence in middle schools in this study can be defined as “helping students gradually take up correct value notions,necessary character and key capability through music learning,and cultivating and developing all kinds of music competence such as music interest,music aesthetic perception,music performance,music creativity and cultural understanding.Music appreciation class is the main channel for quality education and music appreciation teaching is the key field of music learning in middle schools since the period of middle schools is the critical one for cultivating music appreciation competence and fostering students’ music core competence.The cultivation and development of core competence for music in middle schools can well pave the way for music appreciation courses in high schools.Oriented in the way of qualitative research,this study analyses the teaching strategies of music appreciation class and their effects on core competence by way of classroom observation,interviews,case analysis.Through the close classroom observation and depth analysis on 4 ordinary classes and 6 high-quality classes which serve as the samples,the author interviewed the teachers,students and research fellows,found out the application situations of music appreciation teaching strategies and the problems in middle schools,discovered that there is still gap between the teaching practice and the requirements of the Criteria and music core competence and put out those problems we have to solve instantly.Through the study the author proposed a series of effective teaching strategies for improving music appreciation teaching quality in middle schools,analyzed the factors which concern strategy design and practice of music appreciation teaching in middle schools.The main findings of this study are:1.Both research fellows and eminent music teachers highly approved of music appreciation teaching strategies.This study tries to unearth those feasible music appreciation teaching strategies to help those teachers out of the trouble in teaching designing and strategic application by analyzing the teaching strategies music teachers usually employed in their teaching and those strategies in the videos of the high-quality classes.2.The basis characteristics of the teaching strategies teachers employed in the high-quality classes are:1)the strategies in high-quality classes can well agree with teaching content and objectives;2)There is diversity in the application types of teaching strategies in high-quality classes,but the cultivation of students’ cultural understanding of music core competence is not enough;3)The application of the strategies in high-quality class is efficient;4)There are a lot of efficient combinations of strategies in high-quality classes;5)The strategies in high-quality classes pay attention to students’ music core competence.3.The main effective teaching strategies of music appreciation are: operation experience strategy,subject experience strategy,cultural experience strategy,auditory analysis strategy,situation gaming strategy,situation impression strategy,analogical learning strategy and thematic development strategy etc..When analyzing the high-quality class videos,the author also discovered some creative strategies which include group cooperative experience and probe strategy,information extension and probe strategy,question-led listening strategy,synaesthetic assistance listening strategy,interactive strategy etc..4.Some music appreciation teaching strategies reflect the cultivation of music core competence.The application of operation experience music appreciation teaching strategy,subject experience music appreciation teaching strategy,auditory analysis music appreciation teaching strategy,teacher-student communication music appreciation teaching strategy,etc.,has promoted the development of students’ core musical competence,such as continuous interest in music,aesthetic perception and musical expression ability.But the development of students’ cultural understanding of music core literacy is deficient.5.The factors which influence designs and practice of music appreciation teaching strategies in middle schools include internal ones and external ones.The former mainly includes teachers’ approval of core competence and educational values of music appreciation,their professional competence,their knowledge of arts and other subjects,their teaching knowledge and skills,their professional ethics,their teaching design and organization ability and their understanding about students’ knowledge and attitudes.The latter includes music curricula reform,media,educational policies and the professional support of research fellows etc...Based on the findings above,the author puts forward his suggestions for improving teaching strategies in music appreciation teaching which go as follows:1)We should choose those teaching objectives which integrate with efficient practice when designing strategies;2)We should choose those targeted strategies according to teaching content;3)We should pay more attention to the combination application of multi-strategies when we try to cultivate students’ core competence;4)We’d better integrate teaching strategies with environmental factors.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
  • 【分类号】G633.951
  • 【被引频次】4
  • 【下载频次】4634
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