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小学教师领导的个案研究

【作者】 范士红

【导师】 熊梅;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 课程与教学论, 2021, 博士

【摘要】 教师是教育改革的主体,是学校变革的关键力量。近年来,随着教师赋权运动和教师专业化运动的不断推进,“让教师成为领导者”成为当代教育改革的重要倡导,教师领导研究成为教育研究的前沿问题。教师领导强调将学校的领导权力赋予教师,让教师承担领导者的角色和任务。有效的教师领导可以通过多种方式使整个学校受益,包括提高学校的组织效率、形塑学校文化及提高学校的领导能力,促进教师领导者自身的专业发展及专业共同体的合作和专业成长,促进学生学习效果的提高和改善。学校具体教育情境中的教师领导的研究,应该回答两个问题:“谁在领导”和“如何领导”,即什么样的教师能够成为领导者,教师领导者通过哪些行为发挥领导影响。以此为目标,本研究采用个案研究的方法,以两名小学教师为研究对象,以深度访谈为资料收集的主要方法,并辅以观察记录、文件和研究日记等的分析,探讨S小学教师领导的实践样态,描述和解释教师领导者的特质和教师领导者的实践作为,在此基础上分析影响教师领导实践的因素。本研究的结论如下:一、虽然理论上所有的教师都有可能且应该成为教师领导者,然而事实上并非所有的教师都是领导者或者能够进行领导实践。教师要想成为领导者,除了受外部环境的影响,其自身也需要具备一些特质。影响教师成为领导者的特质包含三个方面:人格特质、专业特质和领导特质。专业权威和职业情怀是教师领导者最基本的专业特质;对课程变革的敏感和执行力是教师领导者最显著的专业特质。积极认真、精力旺盛、喜欢挑战,是教师领导者的主要人格特质。正直、乐于分享、善于沟通,是教师领导者主要的领导特质。另外,教师个人的成长经历也影响了领导角色的建构。二、教师领导者在学校教育情境中的实践行为包含三个维度:引领和示范班级课程与教学、发展教师专业共同体、参与学校决策与变革。其中,“引领和示范班级课程与教学”是教师领导实践的最基本维度,这主要来源于教师领导者的专业权威;“发展教师专业共同体”是教师领导者发挥领导影响的最直接方式,教师领导者藉此与共同体成员合作并实现专业成长;教师领导者“参与学校决策与变革”的维度中,参与动机与参与方式主要来自于解决教学实践问题的需要。三、学校环境中同时存在着积极和消极的因素,影响着教师领导的实践。本研究发现的支持教师领导的因素包括学校文化、领导角色和人际关系、教师个人因素以及外部因素四个方面;阻碍教师领导的因素则表现为缺乏时间、缺少明确的学校愿景、校长的有限支持以及缺少系统的科研引领的支持。基于研究发现,本研究提出了“重建学校文化,营造信任合作的共同体氛围;发挥学校管理者在识别、支持和培养教师领导方面的重要作用;教师应该觉察自身的特质,觉醒教师领导意识;开展教师领导教育,提高教师领导者的知能;进一步丰富教师领导的理论研究”五个针对性的建议,以期有更多的教师领导者在学校变革中发挥积极的作用。

【Abstract】 Teachers are the main body of education reform and the key force of school reform.In recent years,with the continuous promotion of school teacher empowerment movement and teacher professionalization movement,"let teachers become leaders" has become an important advocacy of contemporary education reform,and the research on teacher leadership has increasingly become the forefront of education reform research.Teachers’ leadership emphasizes to assign the leadership power of the school to teachers,and let teachers take on the role and task of leaders.Effective teacher leadership can benefit the whole school in many ways,including improving the organizational efficiency,shaping the culture and improving the leadership ability of the school;promoting the professional development of the teacher leaders themselves and the cooperation and professional growth of the professional community;promoting the improvement and improvement of students’ academic performance.The research of teachers’ leadership is gradually moving from theory construction to practice exploration.The research on the practice of teacher leadership in the context of school education should answer two questions: "who is leading" and "how to lead",that is,what kind of teacher can become a leader,and what kind of behavior a teacher leader can exert leadership influence.With this as the goal,this study takes the method of case study,two primary school teachers as the research object,in-depth interview as the main method of data collection,supplemented by the analysis of observation,document analysis and research diary,etc.,to explore the practice pattern of s primary school teachers’ leadership,analyze the characteristics of teachers’ leadership,the practice of teachers’ leadership,and on this basis,analyze the influence on Teachers’ leadership Factors.The conclusions of this study are as follows:1.Although theoretically all teachers can and should be teachers’ leaders,in fact,not all teachers are leaders or can exercise leadership.In order to be a leader,teachers need to have some characteristics besides the external environment.There are three aspects that affect the characteristics of teacher leaders: personality characteristics,professional characteristics and leadership characteristics.Professional authority is the most basic professional characteristic of teacher leaders,and sensitivity and execution to curriculum change are the most significant professional characteristics of teacher leaders.Being active,serious,energetic and willing to challenge are the main personality characteristics of teacher leaders.Integrity,willingness to share and good at communication are the leadership characteristics of teachers’ leaders.In addition,teachers’ personal growth experience also affects the construction of leadership role.2.The practice of teacher leadership in school education includes three dimensions:leading and demonstrating class curriculum and teaching,developing teacher professional community,participating in school decision-making and reform.Among them,"leading and demonstrating class curriculum and teaching" is the most basic dimension of teachers’ leadership practice,which mainly comes from the professional authority of teachers’ leaders;"developing teachers’ professional community" is the most direct way for teachers to exert their leadership influence,through which teachers’ leaders can cooperate with members of the same body and achieve professional growth;teachers’ leaders "participate in school decision-making and reform" dimension In the degree,the motivation and ways of participation mainly come from the need to solve the problems of teaching practice.3.There are both positive and negative factors in school environment,which affect the practice of teachers’ leadership.The factors that support teachers’ leadership include four aspects: school culture,leadership role and interpersonal relationship,teachers’ personal factors and external factors;the factors that hinder teachers’ leadership are the lack of time for teachers’ leadership,the lack of clear school vision,the limited support of principals and the lack of systematic scientific research guidance.Based on the findings of the study,five suggestions are put forward: rebuilding the school culture,building a member relationship of trust and cooperation;giving full play to the important role of school managers in identifying,supporting and cultivating teachers’ leadership;teachers should be aware of their own characteristics and awaken their sense of leadership;carrying out effective teacher leadership education to improve the knowledge of teachers’ leaders;further enriching teachers’ awareness of In order to have more teachers’ leaders to play an active role in the school reform.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
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