中国基础教育博硕士论文库

节点文献

小学数学“有过程的归纳教学”模式建构

【作者】 石迎春

【导师】 于伟;

【作者基本信息】 东北师范大学, 教育博士(专业学位), 2021, 博士

【摘要】 当前教育教学中存在两个突出的问题,一是缺乏“过程”的教育,具有极强的“结果导向”;二是对“归纳教学”重视不够,忽视从个别到一般的归纳学习。小学数学学科,学习内容具有“先验性、抽象性”,儿童掌握这种先于经验、脱离具体情境、经过多次抽象之后的知识存在一定的难度,儿童学习的心理机制要求儿童在数学的学习过程中应浓缩再现人类数学发展的过程,要经历动手操作、实践探索,要亲历知识的再创造、再发现的过程。“有过程的归纳教学”作为一种教学理念和方式,旨在回应上述的诉求,变革儿童的学习方式、促进儿童知识的理解与智慧的生成。“有过程的归纳教学”已对当前教育教学改革产生了重大的影响,而如何更好地在教学中进行实践成为了教育界关注的重点问题。本研究立足实际,以小学数学学科为例,以归纳性教学理论的生成路径为指引,从“宏观的理论阐释——中观的模式建构——微观的教学实践”三个层面对“有过程的归纳教学”做纵深的探查与研究。以“设计本位”研究为研究范式,构建小学数学“有过程的归纳教学”的教学模式,探寻教学的设计与实施策略。本研究围绕三个研究问题:1.什么是“有过程的归纳教学”?2.小学数学“有过程的归纳教学”的模式原型是什么?3.如何修订和完善小学数学“有过程的归纳教学”的模式原型?具体展开了三个方面的工作。首先,本研究从理论和现实两个维度,对“有过程的归纳教学”的立论基础进行分析,并基于对国内外关于“过程及过程教学”“归纳及归纳教学”文献的分析,在结合专家访谈的基础上对“有过程的归纳教学”的内涵、典型特征及其条件系统进行了阐述。之后以设计本位研究为研究范式,通过三轮的教学迭代对“有过程的归纳教学”的理论进行了回应,并对典型特征及其实现条件进行了完善。其次,本研究以“有过程的归纳教学”的理论为指引,利用视频图像分析法对小学数学10节典型的“关注过程、注重归纳”的教学课例的典型特征进行了分析,并得到了“注重过程的归纳式教学”课堂样态是怎样的,之后确定了“有过程的归纳教学”模式原型建构的五个核心要素:“类特征”的学习主题、“挑战性”的问题情境、“探究性”的操作活动、“贯穿性”的归纳建构、“嵌入式”的学习评价,并以上述研究为基础初步构建了小学数学“有过程的归纳教学”的教学模式(Mode of Procedural Inductive Teaching,以下简称“P-I”教学模式)原型,并从指导思想、功能目标、操作流程和实现条件四个方面对该教学模式进行了详细的阐述。初步构建的“P-I”教学模式具体的操作流程主要有:确立学习目标——设置问题情境——探索新知、建构意义——归纳新知——应用巩固这五个环节。最后,将“P-I”教学模式的原型与小学数学学科的典型案例结合进行具象化,展开了三轮的教学迭代。一方面是将教学理念转化成了实践,另一方面是对教学模式进行检验和修正,同时也对“有过程的归纳教学”的意义、价值、内涵等进行回应。第一轮教学研究是尝试和探索阶段,按照之前构建的教学模式进行教学设计和实施,主要是从宏观的角度对有过程的归纳教学的各个要素进行整体的考察。通过第一轮的教学实践,本研究对“P-I”教学模式原型的操作流程进行了优化,并结合具体的教学内容设计了“P-I”教学模式的变式。第二轮是调整和改进的阶段,在第一轮的行动研究的基础上,对“P-I”教学模式进行中观的调整。进一步将教学模式的原型及其变式的操作流程进行优化,并增加了“P-I”教学模式的师生行为指南。第三轮是提升和应用的阶段,主要是从微观的角度,对教学模式的细节进行打造,最终将教学模式的操作流程优化为:“确立学习目标”、“创设问题情境”、“探索新知、建构意义”、“回顾反思”、“应用巩固,拓展延伸”五个环节,并将学生的学习评价嵌入到整个模式之中。至此,经过三轮的教学迭代,本研究构建了与“有过程的归纳教学”相互匹配的适合小学数学教学的“P-I”教学模式原型、变式及其师生行为指南。本研究最终构建了小学数学“有过程的归纳教学”的教学模式(“P-I”教学模式)。该教学模式的创新性主要体现在:1.立足我国当前教育教学存在的问题,以设计本位研究为研究范式,尝试给出来自实践的探索;2.“P-I”教学模式很好地将“过程教育”与“归纳教学”思想结合起来;3.将“P-I”教学模式做变式的处理,以此来增加模式的灵活性;4.将学生的学习评价嵌入到整个模式之中。另外,本研究在教学实践研究中,对“有过程的归纳教学”的设计与实施策略进行了提炼。“有过程的归纳教学”的设计策略主要有:“聚焦‘核心内容’,确定类特征学习主题”“整体分析学习内容、把握知识本质”“剖析学生前概念、定位学习起点”“形成以‘单元’为单位的教学设计”。“有过程的归纳教学”的实施策略主要有:“创建课堂学习共同体,实现多种形式的对话”“经历多种思维的沉思,实现新知的归纳”“对归纳的结论进行辨思,处理好‘或然与必然’的关系”“介入真实情境和任务,实行多元性教育评价”。

【Abstract】 There are two outstanding problems in current education and teaching.One is the lack of "process" education,which has a strong "result-oriented";the other is insufficient attention to "inductive teaching",ignoring individual to general inductive learning.In mathematics,the content of learning is “transcendental and abstract.” Children have a certain degree of difficulty in mastering this knowledge that is prior to experience,out of specific situations,and after multiple abstractions.The psychological mechanism of children’s learning requires children to learn the learning process of mathematics should condense and reproduce the process of human mathematics development,experience hands-on operation,practical exploration,and experience the process of re-creation and rediscovery of knowledge.As a teaching concept and method,"procedural inductive teaching" aims to respond to the above-mentioned demands,transform children’s learning methods,and promote children’s knowledge understanding and the generation of wisdom."Procedural inductive teaching" has had a significant impact on the current education and teaching reform,and how to better practice in teaching has become a key issue that the education community pays attention to.This research is based on reality,taking primary school mathematics as an example,and guided by the generation path of inductive teaching theory,from the three levels of " Macro-theoretical interpretation;Meso-model construction;Micro teaching practice ","procedural inductive teaching" is deeply explored and researched.Taking "design-based" research as a research paradigm,constructing a teaching model of "procedural inductive teaching" in primary school mathematics,and exploring teaching design and implementation strategies.This research revolves around three research questions.1.What is "procedural inductive teaching" ? 2.What is the prototype of the "procedural inductive teaching" of elementary school mathematics? 3.How to revise and perfect the model prototype of "procedural inductive teaching" in elementary school mathematics? Three aspects of work were specifically launched.First of all,this research analyzes the theoretical basis of "procedural inductive teaching" from the two dimensions of theory and reality.Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign literature on "process and process teaching" and "inductive and inductive teaching",combined with expert interviews,the connotation,typical characteristics and conditions of "procedural inductive teaching" are described.Afterwards,using design-based research as the research paradigm,three rounds of teaching iterations responded to the theory of "procedural inductive teaching",and perfected typical features and conditions for their realization.Secondly,this research is guided by the theory of "procedural inductive teaching",using video image analysis method to analyze the typical characteristics of the 10 typical "focus on process,focus on induction" teaching example of elementary school mathematics,and get What is the "process-oriented inductive teaching" classroom style,and then determined the five core elements of the prototype construction of the " procedural inductive teaching " model: "Categorical" learning topics;"Challenging" problem situation;"Exploratory" operational activities;"Permeability" inductive construction;"Embedded" learning evaluation.Based on the above research,a prototype of the "Mode of Procedural Inductive Teaching"(hereinafter referred to as "P-I" teaching mode)of elementary school mathematics was initially constructed.The teaching mode is elaborated in detail from four aspects: guiding ideology,functional objectives,operating procedures and realization conditions.The operation process of the initially constructed "P-I" teaching mode mainly has five links.Establish learning goals,set problem situations,explore new knowledge,construct meaning,summarize new knowledge,and apply and consolidate.Finally,the prototype of the "P-I" teaching model was combined with the typical cases of mathematics to visualize,and three rounds of teaching iterations were launched.On the one hand,the teaching concept was transformed into practice,and on the other hand,the teaching model was tested and verified.The revision also responds to the meaning,value,and connotation of "procedural inductive teaching".The first round of teaching research is the trial and exploratory stage.The teaching design and implementation are carried out in accordance with the previously constructed teaching model,which mainly examines the various elements of "procedural inductive teaching" from a macro perspective.Through the first round of teaching practice,this research optimized the operation process of the prototype of the "P-I" teaching model,and designed a variant of the "P-I" teaching model based on specific teaching content.The second round is the stage of adjustment and improvement.On the basis of the first round of action research,the "P-I" teaching model was adjusted in the middle perspective.The prototype of the teaching model and its variant operation process are further optimized,and added a guide for teachers and students of the "P-I" education model.The third round is the stage of promotion and application.Mainly from a micro perspective,the details of the teaching model are created.Finally,the operation process of the teaching mode is optimized into five links."Establish learning goals","create problem situations","explore new knowledge,construct meaning","review and reflect","consolidate application,expand and extend".And embed students’ learning evaluation into the whole teaching model.After three rounds of teaching iterations,this research has constructed the prototypes,variants and behavior guidelines of the "P-I" teaching model suitable for elementary school mathematics teaching that are compatible with the "procedural inductive teaching".This research finally constructed the teaching model of "procedural inductive teaching" in elementary school mathematics("P-I" teaching model).The innovation of this teaching model is mainly reflected in: 1.Based on the existing problems of current education and teaching in our country,taking design-based research as the research paradigm,trying to provide exploration from practice;2.The "P-I" teaching model combines the ideas of "process education" and "inductive teaching" well.3.The "P-I" teaching model is modified to increase the flexibility of the model.In addition,this research has refined the design and implementation strategy of "procedural inductive teaching" in the research of teaching practice.The design strategies of "procedural inductive teaching" mainly include: Focus on the ‘core content’ and determine the learning theme;Analyze the learning content as a whole and grasp the essence of knowledge;Analyze students’ pre-concepts and locate the starting point for learning;Form a teaching design with ‘unit’ as the unit.The implementation strategies of "procedural inductive teaching" mainly include: Create a classroom learning community and realize multiple forms of dialogue;Experience the contemplation of many kinds of thinking and realize the induction of new knowledge;Discuss the conclusion of the induction,and handle the relationship between ‘probability and necessity’;Intervene in real situations and tasks,and implement diversified educational evaluations.

  • 【网络出版投稿人】 东北师范大学
节点文献中: