【作者基本信息】 北京师范大学， 课程与教学论， 2010， 博士
【摘要】 历史和现实经验表明,国内外多数自上而下的大规模的基础教育改革鲜有成功案例。主要原因是因为这些改革基本上坚持“外推型”和“革命化”的推广模式。这种思维模式的背后通常就蕴涵着改革“突变论”思想。 改革“突变论”主要指对改革的一种线性认识,即认为改革是一次事件,是一种一蹴而就的行为,是一种在短期内就能“告别过去”、“破旧立新”,实现预期目标的片面、孤立、激进的改革观点。“突变论”在基础教育改革实践进程中有多种表现形式。这种认识指导下的改革实践正威胁着多数基础教育改革的健康发展。当前对于改革“突变论”,我们需要认真反思:一方面要认识到“突变论”出现确有它的事实依据和思想基础,在特殊时期“突变论”确能起到指导基础教育发展的任务;但另一方面,改革“突变论”却难以为基础教育长期发展指引正确道路,“突变论”的改革策略并不能促进基础教育发展。 与“突变论”相对应的是改革“渐变论”思想。目前,“渐变论”只是作为一个概念提出,对其认识较为零散,还不深刻,仍需要进一步的发展完善。本文提出的改革“渐变论”认为对于基础教育改革首先要深刻认识到人的理性的有限性,基础教育改革只是一种“有限理性”行为;其次是要深刻到认识改革过程是一个不断适应的过程,要放弃改革会“一帆风顺”、“一蹴而就”的想法;再次是要深刻认识社会系统对于改革的制约性,改革并不能随心所欲;最后要深刻认识到改革过程的复杂性。改革过程会受到多种复杂因素影响,改革出现问题,出现非预期的结果,都是改革的常态。 改革“渐变论”的理论主张,具体揭示了改革需要遵循的行动策略。首先改革者需要树立系统的基础教育改革观。基础教育改革不可能依靠某个人、单位或组织就可以顺利推进,作为改革实施单位学校需要加强内部合作和外部合作;其次改革设计体现“有限理性”意识。即改革目标设计要走向“适中”,树立改革“生态主体观”,改革道路应选择渐进式改革路线;再次,基础教育改革推进遵循“共同适应”原则。即改革推行中作为组织的学校,一方面要能够适应外部提出的改革方案,另一方面还要能够结合学校自身实际情况,创造性的发展和完善改革方案,以推动改革真正落实;最后,正视对待基础教育改革过程中出现“问题”。由于改革过程很复杂,改革问题出现带有某种必然性。这就需要正视改革问题,通过问题来反思自身改革,调整改革方案,保障改革良性前行。就此而论,改革“渐变论”思想应是指导基础教育改革的主要理论,坚持“渐变论”的改革策略,才能更好推进改革,促进基础教育发展。 当前中国基础教育改革正处于深化、发展的关键期,选择“突变论”还是“渐变论”作为指导改革的主要理论,取决于对中国现行基础教育体系性质进行判断。而对现行基础教育体系性质判断准确与否,则直接决定着改革性质和成效。就中国目前现行基础教育体系的历史定位而言,中国基础教育发展并非应由“传统教育”转向“现代教育”或是转向所谓代表未来教育发展走向的“后现代教育”。如果把中国现行基础教育体系放在中国现代教育百年演进的历史长河中来看,中国现行基础教育体系就是现代教育体系。基础教育改革的历史使命并非“大破大立”,创建一个什么新体系,而是要促进现代基础教育体系进一步深化、发展和完善。所以改革“渐变论”应是指导21世纪中国基础教育改革的主要思想。当前中国基础教育“渐变”改革仍需要注意以下几个问题:尊重历史;与国情紧密联系;改革方式上要注意“自上而下”和“自下而上”相结合。
【Abstract】 The history and actual experience show that hardly a successful example of basic education reforms which are top-down and large-scale has been found both at home and abroad. It was because that these basic education reforms adhere to "extrapolate" and "revolutionary" promotion mode which has an implication of "catastrophe theory"."Catastrophe theory" of reform mainly refers to a linear knowledge of reform, in other words, it holds that revolution is an event which can be accomplished at one stroke. Thus, it is a one-sided, isolated and radical view, arguing that through reform we can "say goodbye to the past" and "destroy the old and establish the new" in a short period. "Catastrophe theory", having many ways of showing itself in the reforming practice of basic education, is threatening the healthy development of most basic education reforms. So it is time to rethink now. As for the "catastrophe theory" of reform, on one hand, we must realize that the appearance of it does have a factual basis and fundamental thoughts, and "catastrophe theory" does promote the education development at a particular time. However, on the other hand, it is hard for "sudden change" to show a right path to develop basic education. The reform strategies of "catastrophe theory" cannot push the development of basic education forward."Gradualism theory" is a theory contrary to "catastrophe theory". At present, "gradualism theory" has only been rendered as a concept of which people have only a superficial cognition. It needs a further development and improvement. The "gradualism theory" rendered in this paper holds that basic education reform should first have a keen awareness of the finiteness of people’s rationality and that basic education reform is only a finite and rational act. Secondly, we must realize that the reforming process is a process of continuous adaptation and we should abandon the thought of "plain sailing" or "reach the goal in one step". Thirdly, we should fully understand that reforming process is conditioned by social system and can not be done as what we please. Last, we should have a profound idea of the complexities of reforming process. It is influenced by many complicated factors and it is a normal phenomenon of reforms to have unexpected results or move in circles. Only by commanding "gradualism theory" of basic education reform and adhere to the reforming strategies of "gradualism theory" can we give a better guide on the reforming act and promote the development of basic education reform.Specifically speaking, the concrete strategies of "gradualism theory" are as follows. First, the reformers have to establish a systematic view upon the basic education reform which cannot proceed smoothly only with the help of an individual, a unit or an organization. The schools which are performing reforms, in particular, should strengthen their interior cooperation and the cooperation with the outside world as well. Secondly, the reform project should have a sense of "finite rationality". To be precise, the object of the reform project must be moderate and devotes to establish a "critical view of ecology". The reform should keep to a gradualistic route. Thirdly, the promotion of the reform in basic education must adhere to the "co-adaptation" principle. That is, schools, as an organization in the reform, should be not only adapted to the reform programs rendered by society but also develop and implement the reforming programs creatively with the schools’ actual situation taken into consideration. At last, we should take the right course with the problems during the reforming process. As the reforming process is complicated, problems are inevitable to come up. This needs us to face up to the problems and do our best to reflect upon our reform through these problems so that we could adjust our reform programs and ensure a benign reform. From the above analysis, the "gradualism theory" should be a main theory to instruct basic education reform.The basic education in current China is undergoing a deepening and developing phase. It depends on Chinese current education system to decide whether to choose "catastrophe theory" or "gradualism theory". However, the judgement on the current education system determines the qualities and effects. In terms of contemporary education system’s historical position in China, Chinese basic education is not on the way of changing from a traditional education to a modern education or to the so-called "postmodern education" which represents the trend of education in future. If we examine Chinese basic education system in the long history of Chinese modern education, we would find that the basic education system in China today is essentially a modern education system. The historic mission of the basic education reform is not a matter of "huge changes" or of establishing a new system, instead, it aims to deepen, develop and implement modern education reform. Therefore, "gradualism theory"should be the main notion of the basic education reform of China in 21th century. At present, the basic education reform in China should pay heed to the following problems: respect the history, be closely related with national conditions and that reform methods must combine "from top to bottom" with "from bottom to top".
- 【网络出版投稿人】 北京师范大学