辅文

  The boundless and precipitous Yinshan Mountain stretches across the central part of the Inner Mongolian plateau with its great momentum. And the mid-southern area of Inner Mongolia is just located at the southern foot of Yinshan Mountain. There is a chain of undulating hills,winding rivers and lakes dotted around like stars in the sky. A lot of ancient sites of inhabitant tribes of primitive culture are scattered here. The hill zone along the southern bank of Huangqi Sea is one of the major regions where ancient culture was nurtured and developed. We want to make public in this book the entire archaeological data excavated from the three ancient sites in Miaozigou and Dabagou in this region as well as the preliminary results of the study.
  Qahar Youyi Qianqi of Huangqi Sea basin is located in the mid-southern region of Ulanqab Meng in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. It neighbors Xinghe County in the east,Fengzhen County in the south,Zhuozi County in the west and Qahar Youyi Houqi in the north. Its geographic coordinate is E112°49′~113°40′ and N 40°41′~41°43′,about 1230~1400 meters above the sea level in the basin. The surrounding low hills and lava terrace are about 1400~1700 meters above the sea level.
  Miaozigou ancient site,located on the hillside in the south of Miaozigou village,Uraharura township,Qahar Youyi Qianqi,is 12.5 kilometers from the Tuguiura town,the seat of Qi government in the northwest and 7 kilometers from Huangqi Sea in the north. The Hohhot-Datong highway passes from the east to the west through Grade- Ⅱ terrace between the ancient site and Huangqi Sea. The ancient site is on the western slope of a north-south gully named Miaozigou valley,which is about 70 meters wide and 10 meters deep. Miaozigou ancient site is divided into Area Ⅰ ,located on Grade Ⅲ terrace in the south of the village and Area Ⅱ on the transition belt between Grade Ⅱ and Grade Ⅲ terraces in the north of the village. Area Ⅱ covers an area of about 200 000square meters and has not been excavated yet. The data of Miaozigou ancient site published in this book were actually excavated from Area Ⅰ. The site had been excavated three times from1985~1987 with an excavated area of 10500 square meters . In the excavations,52 remains of dwellings,139 ash holes (pits) and 42 tombs were discovered; A total of 664 pieces of complete and recoverable pottery wares,518 stone articles,and 81 bone,horn and clam articles were unearthed,and a large amount of specimens of pottery pieces and animal bones were obtained. In addition,there is a very special phenomenon that in the indoor and outdoor pits of some remains of dwellings,the skeletons of adults and children were often buried together,and at the same time,the bones of minors were often discovered in the kitchen range as well as in the surrounding surface of dwellings.
  Area I of Dabagou ancient site is located on the hillside 0.5 kilometers to the south of Goukou village,Tuguiura township,Qahar Youyi Qianqi. It is about 6 kilometers from Tuguiura town in the northwest,about 6 kilometers from Huangqi Sea in the north and about 8 kilometers from Miaozigou ancient site in the east. The Dabagou valley on the east of the ancient site is about 100meters wide and the brook trickles all the year round through the valley into Huangqi Sea from the south to the north. Neighbored by Dabagou valley,the eastern part of the site has a height difference of about 60 meters with the ancient site and covers an area of 26000 square meters. The terrain here is rather flat. This ancient site was excavated twice in 1988 and 1992 respectively,with a total opened area of 5566 square meters. 36 remains of dwellings,110 ash holes and 1 enclosing trench were discovered in the excavation. Area Ⅱ of Dabagou ancient site is about 300 meters to the south of Area I and faces Area I across Daxigou. The site covers an area of 20000 square meters,Area Ⅱwas excavated in 1992 and the excavated area was 707 square meters. 9 remains of dwellings,19ash holes and 2 tombs were discovered in the excavation.
  The three ancient sites in Miaozigou and Dabagou excavated from the hill zone on the southern bank of Huangqi Sea were all distributed on the terrace to the west side of the north-south gully.Generally,the loess on this kind of terrace is thick and the slope is smooth,therefore,the inhabitant tribe was relatively better preserved. The half-underground houses of the inhabitant tribe were downhill arranged in a proper order and distributed in groups. The gateways were basically facing east in a leeward and sunny position. The utensils for production and living were more or less unearthed from each house,which reflected to a certain extent the basic situation of the internal organization structure,relations of production and social development within the inhabitant tribe.
  In the above-mentioned ancient sites,most of the ash holes evenly distributed around the remains of dwellings were well-made pits of various descriptions,only a few of them were ash holes in the full sense of the word. These pits and ash holes should belong to the corresponding remains of dwellings.
  The three ancient sites in Miaozigou and Dabagou showed the regular layout of inhabitant tribes,and their unearthed remains provided a lot of valuable information.
  The large amounts of pottery,stone,bone,hom and clam wares unearthed in these three ancient sites can reflect the different aspects of the social life then. Moreover,a certain amount of production and living utensils and adornments were unearthed in a major part of remains of dwellings and pits,especially in Miaozigou ancient site. As it was abandoned for some special reason,the original living features at that time were better preserved here. The complete sets of production tools and utensils for daily life and adornments were discovered in almost every remains of dwelling. For example,a total of 113 utensils were unearthed from F15. Among them,besides the millstone,mill bar,stone axe,stone knife,stone spinning wheel and various kinds of pottery wares discovered on the dwellings surface,7 stone wares and 6 pottery wares were respectively unearthed from pits H21 and H22 in the remains of dwellings. For another example,besides 13 pottery wares,14 stone and 2 bone and horn wares unearthed from the dwelling surface of F19,5 pottery wares,11 stone and 2 bone and horn wares were unearthed in pit H30. Besides 13 pottery wares and 5 stone wares earthed on the dwelling surface of F22,1 spinning wheel and 1 antler were unearthed from pit H32. In pit H36 in F25,19 pottery wares and 3 pieces of millstone were arranged in the surroundings of a circular-shape pit bottom. In addition,in the unit where human bones were unearthed,it has often discovered that adult men and women were buried together or lived together with children. For example,3 adult women,1 teenager and 2 infant children were buried together in M25; 2 adult men and 1 adult women and 1 child were buried in M29; In the pit at the back corner of the house in F8,a young woman was buried,and at the same time,2 skeletons of children of 6 to 8 years old were tucked in the kitchen pit. People who lived together in a room or who were buffed together in a pit most probably were the members of a clan or a family.
  The following understandings can be acquired from the analysis on the layout of inhabitant tribes,unearthed remains and burial customs in three ancient sites of Miaozigou and Dabagou.
  1. In the three ancient sites,no matter the Miaozigou ancient site with a slight slope or the other two ancient sites at Dabagou with flat terrains,the remains of dwellings were all distributed in rows and the doorways were basically facing east,which was different from the layout pattern of inhabitant tribes with the clan tribe as the mainstay,such as the centric clan tribes of Banpo and Jiangzhai in the development stage of matriarchy.
  2. Generally,the width of the house is small,which reflects a trend of gradual decrease from Area I of Dabagou ancient site to Miaozigou ancient site from an early period to a late period. No central building for public activities was found in the ancient sites.
  3. The relative distance between the two or three remains of dwellings located in the same row with similar years is generally smaller than that between the rows. This indicates that the owners of the houses probably had a closer genetic relationship.
  4. Each remains of dwellings had 3.4~2.9 pits or ash holes on the average. This should be relatively fit for the house owners to store grains,utensils and varia separately.
  5. There was a complete set of production tools and utensils for daily life in each house. This indicates that the house owners could make a living and engage in production independently,or that the neighboring two or three houses and the surrounding pits could be organized together as a unit for routine production and living.
  6. The phenomenon that the people of different ages and sexes lived together or were buried together shows that they probably had a closer blood lineage. And the clan society with clan and family as the mainstay probably had already appeared.
  In summary,the situation reflected by the three ancient sites of primitive inhabitant tribes in Miaozigou and Dabagou indicates that Huangqi Sea area located to the north of the Yellow River Valley had entered into the prosperous stage of culture development in the late period of Yangshao Culture. The existence of private ownership mentality and property and the fact that the production and living were carried out in the unit of clan and family have illustrated that the primitive inhabitant tribes in this period had already shaken off the chains of matriarchy. Its social organization probably had already stepped into the pairing marriage clan system with clan and family as the mainstay under patriarchy.
  The large amount of unearthed remains shows that the remnant production activities were predominated by agricultural economy. Hunting,animal breeding,fishing and gathering still took a considerable part. And the making of tools and pottery had reached a higher level.
  More than 70 human skeletons were unearthed from the Miaozigou ancient site,but it could obviously be seen from the burial locations and burial patterns that most of the skeletons were not normally buried. The phenomenon that the deceased were not buried in the graveyards and that large amount of remains was left in the ancient site seems to tell us that the primitive inhabitant tribe in Miaozigou was probably destroyed by a sudden disaster. According to the analysis on the excavation of the ancient sites,reasons of war,earthquake and fire could be ruled out. Famine and pestilence could be the very possible causes. We can imagine that when this primitive inhabitant tribe full of vitality was attacked by a pestilence,it had no time to transport the deceased to the graveyards. The first group of the deceased was hastily buried in the large pits around the remains of dwellings. When the pestilence became reckless,the ordered burying was no longer possible and many of the deceased were left carelessly in the pits. And when the pestilence became more rampant,it was impossible to bury the dead. People could hardly look after themselves and many of them fell down in the remains of dwellings or in the pits. The survivals could only flee their homeland with some utensils. It was most miserable for our ancient ancestors,but large amount of very valuable data were left for us. This is of great significance for us to restore the social situation at that time.
  In the mid-southern area of Inner Mongolia with Hohhot plain as the center,there were three types of relevant cultures. The first type is the Miaozigou Culture distributed in Huangqi Sea and Daihai Sea hill basin. The second is the Haishengbulang Culture distributed along both banks of the Yellow River flowing to the south. The third is the Second-stage Axa Culture distributed on the piedmont terrace of Daqingshan. These three remains of archaeological cultures were developed in the period of late Yangshao in the mid-southern part of Inner Mongolian with distinctive characteristics of regional archaeological culture. Through the excavation and preliminary study on the three ancient sites in Miaozigou and Dabagou,the integration with various archaeological cultures in the mid-southern part of Inner Mongolian and the comparative analysis on the relationship between the remains at Miaozigou and Dabagou and the archaeological cultures in the surrounding and neighboring areas,we have acquired the following understandings.
  1. The large-area excavation in the three complete ancient sites of inhabitant tribes in Miaozigou and Dabagou in the area on the southern bank of Huangqi Sea is one of the significant results in the archaeological culture study for the late period of Yangshao Culture in the mid-southern area of Inner Mongolia.
  2. Miaozigou Culture is a kind of regional archaeological culture that was generated and distributed in the mid-southern part of Inner Mongolian,which differs greatly from various archaeological cultures in the surrounding and neighboring areas and has a distinct cultural feature of its own .
  3. Due to its different distribution of regions and different influences from outside,Miaozigou Culture showed a certain kind of regional difference. It can be divided into three relevant regional types of Miaozigou,Haishengbulang and Second-stage Axa Cultures.
  4. Miaozigou Culture can be divided into the early,middle and late stages that are closely connected and successively developed according to the stage of Miaozigou Culture and the corresponding relation among the stages of the three regional culture types.
  5. The distribution of houses and the common remains in Miaozigou Culture showed that its social morphology had already stepped into the paring marriage clan system. The production economy was mainly agriculture. Hunting and animal breeding still took a considerable part.
  6. Miaozigou Culture was developed on the basis of inheriting the major factors of Miaodigou Culture and accepting the influence and infiltration of various archaeological cultures in the surrounding areas. It had two directions. First,it was directly developed into Axa Culture on both banks of the Yellow River and the following Yongxingdian Culture represented by wide-crotched cooking vessel with three hollow legs; second,it was developed with a certain relation to the following Laohushan Culture represented by cauldron-like and red pottery two-ear jars in the regions surrounding Huangqi Sea and Daihai Sea.
  Regarding the absolute dates for the remains in the three stages of Miaozigou Culture,six 14C data are available for reference at present,which were corrected by the growth ring of trees,of which three were Xiyuan ancient sites and three were Axa ancient sites. Xiyuan H7 was5815± 74 years ago,H10 was 5795± 74 years ago and H51 was 5340±92 years ago; Axa T7④ was 5710 ± 74 years ago,T9④ was 4990 ± 159 years ago and Ⅱ H5 was 5365 ± 92 years ago. According to the division of cultural stages for Second-stage Axa type,the data from Xiyuan H51,Axa Ⅱ H5 and T9④ roughly corresponded to the second and third stages in Second-stage Axa type respectively. The years of other three data were rather earlier,which probably went beyond the scope of the second-stage remains of Axa ancient site,but should be closer to the first stage in Second-stage Axa type. Therefore,we have known that the early period of this kind of cultural remains was about 5800 years ago,the middle period was nearly 5400 years ago and the late period was 5000 years ago. The time span for its existence was about 700~800 years.
  Therefore,this kind of remains that existed in the mid-southern area of Inner Mongolia,with its cultural features different from the archaeological culture in the surrounding and neighboring areas,developed continuously for a certain period of time and had typical characteristics of its own,should be considered as a kind of independent archaeological culture —— Miaozigou Culture.