辅文

  Dafengle is a village about 5 km south of Fengyi town,Dali Autonomous Prefecture,Yunnan Province. The Dafengle graveyard lies on a gentle slope of a hill about 1 km to the north-east of the village,with a area of 5,000 square meters. Yunnan Provincial Institute of Archaeology together with Dali Bureau of Archaeological Affairs and Museums had undertaken two excavations in March to June of 1993 and March to June of 1995respectively. The total excavated area is 860 square meters,including 9 10× 10 square meters excavation pits. The two excavations mainly focused on the southwest part of the graveyard for its densely distribution of tombs. 987 tombs were discovered here,including 966 cremation tombs and 21 burial tombs,and the plans and arrangements of the tombs are very complicated.
  The cremation tombs consist of 5 shaping types,namely,round vertical pits,elliptic vertical pits,square pits,rectangular flagstone pits and square or rectangular bricked pits. Among them the round pits being the most.
  According to the burial manners,cremation tombs can be classified as 4 types: (1) single burial; (2) husband - wife joint burial; (3) many people joint burial; (4) others. Single burial can be divided further into 4 subtypes by the burial utensils: (1) one-fold burial; (2) two-fold burial;(3)three-foldburial;(4)fore-foldburial.And busband- wife joint burial can be divided into two - pot burial and two double - fold burial.
  Dafengle graveyard is rich in cremation utensils. There are 2750 pieces in all unearthed from the 966 cremation tombs. By what they were making of we divided them into 3 groups: clay,pottery and bronze. The majority is clay,then pottery,and bronze the least. The most part of the utensils are clay pots,which are introduced in 24 types in this book,china pots and bronze pots are also introduced by 2 types each. Many of the pots have finishes,and the most popular pattern is the lotus pattern.
  The 21 burial tombs could be divided into 3 types: (1) vertical earth pit; (2) vertical earth pit with an extending bottom; (3) brickchambered tombs. Most of the tombs belong to the first type,amount to 18 tombs.
  Among these 987 tombs,1496 funeral objects were founded in 586 cremation tombs and 14burial tombs. These objects are various in types,they are made of clay,pottery,iron,bronze and other materials. The largest in number is clay,with 728 in total,mainly are jars,pots,bowls,12 - animal models and tomb - figures. The next is pottery,with 368 in number,also in the form of daily vessels such as vases,pots,bowls and plates. There are 117 bronze objects,including an exquisite statue of Buddha. Of the 223 iron objects,many are iron pieces.
  Based on stratigraphic and typological analysis of the tombs and pottery objects,the tombs at the Dafengle graveyard can be divided into 6 periods,they are:
  Period 1,53 cremation tombs,dating from late Tang Dynasty to early North- Song Dynasty,approximately from late Nanzhao Kingdom to the beginning of Dali Kingdom of Yunnan local governance;
  Period 2,98 cremation tombs,dating from late South- Song to early Yuan Dynasty;
  Period 3,124 cremation tombs,dating from middle to late Yuan Dynasty;
  Period 4,248 cremation tombs,dating to early Ming Dynasty;
  Period 5,210 tombs,including 2 burial tombs,dating form the end of early to the middle of Ming Dynasty;
  Period 6,254 tombs,including 19 burial tombs,dating to late Ming Dynasty.
  This book is a complete description and detailed analysis of the various materials on the Dafengle graveyard,it not only clears the veins and arteries of the making of the cemetery,but also establishes a criterion for the research on chronologizing of cremation tombs of Erhai Lake region and surrounding areas. The cremation tombs here show strong influences of Buddhist culture. The author also has many new ideas on questions like when did the graveyard begin and end,its territorial characters and the mistakes in dating the copper cash of this graveyard.